Company Announcements

2022 Half Year Results

Source: RNS
RNS Number : 8527U
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc
04 August 2022
 

 

4 August 2022

 

ROLLS-ROYCE HOLDINGS PLC - 2022 Half Year Results

 

 

Focused on operational and commercial drivers to address risks and deliver better performance

 

·           Good progress with growth in order intake, revenue and cash flow

-   Another record quarter in Q2 for order intake in Power Systems

-   £1.1bn free cash flow improvement due to commercial discipline and increased flying hours

-   Underlying profit margins were lower in the first half, but are expected to improve in the second half

·           Managing external challenges with operational and commercial discipline

-   Concentrating spend with leading suppliers; increased inventory to address supply constraints

-   Controlling costs and applying contractual and pricing discipline to limit inflation risk

·           Delivering on our commitments

-   2022 Group guidance unchanged with focus on managing risks

-   ITP Aero disposal received regulatory clearance and is progressing towards completion

-   Medium-term Civil Aerospace targets reflect commitment to become leaner and more agile

 

Warren East, Chief Executive said: "We have progressed well in the first half of the year, with more than a £1bn improvement in free cash flow, strong order intake in Power Systems, increased engine flying hours and commercial discipline in Civil Aerospace, and targeted investment to support longer-term growth in Defence and New Markets. We are actively managing the impacts of a number of challenges, including rising inflation and ongoing supply chain disruption, with a sharper focus on pricing, productivity and costs. As a result of the actions we have taken over the last few years, our Civil Aerospace business is becoming leaner and more agile, and we are executing on the levers of value creation we shared at our investor event in May. This is setting us up to deliver on our commitments this year and in the future. We are making choices to manage the current challenges, deliver better returns, reduce debt, and generate long-term sustainable value."

 

Half Year 2022 Group financial performance


Statutory 2022 H1

Statutory

2021 H1

Underlying 2022 H1

Underlying 2021 H1

£ million, continuing operations

Revenue

5,600

5,159

5,308

5,227

Gross profit

1,062

814

942

1,097

Operating profit

223

38

125

307

Operating margin %

4.0%

0.7%

2.4%

5.9%

(Loss)/profit for the period

(1,611)

394

(188)

104

(Loss)/earnings per share (pence)

(19.29)

4.73

(2.24)

1.25

 

£ million

2022 H1

2021 H1

Free cash flow from continuing operations

(68)

(1,174)

Group free cash flow

(77)

(1,151)

 

£ million

2022 H1

2021 H1

Net cash inflow/(outflow) from operating activities

597

(679)




£ million

30 Jun 2022

31 Dec 2021

Net debt

(5,142)

(5,157)



 

Good progress with growth in order intake, revenue and cashflow

Demand for our products and services is growing with another period of record order intake in Power Systems, continued recovery in Civil Aerospace engine flying hours and high visibility of future revenues in Defence with a strong order book. We are focusing on operational and commercial drivers to drive better performance. For example, we are strategically partnering with key suppliers, robustly applying contractual pricing protection in long-term contracts and utilising commodity hedges and fixed price purchasing agreements. We are also focused on maximising efficiency and productivity in manufacturing, such as increasing the repair and reuse of spare parts in services and de-risking original equipment (OE) deliveries with a temporary increase in inventory.

Our underlying profit margins fell in the period. Adjusting for foreign exchange movements, contract catch-ups and provision movements our underlying profit margins slightly increased in the period. The prior period included legacy spare parts sales in Defence, which had a £45m positive profit impact, and a foreign exchange movement in Civil Aerospace of approximately £270m reflecting a one-off transactional revaluation credit.

Free cash outflow from continuing operations of £68m improved by £1.1bn on the prior period, led mostly by increased flying hour receipts in Civil Aerospace. Working capital (excluding long term service agreement (LTSA) balance movements) was a £269m outflow in 2022 H1 with higher inventory resulting from the impact of supply chain disruption partly offset by improved payables performance.

Managing external challenges with operational and commercial discipline

The external environment remains challenging, with the war in Ukraine, inflationary pressures, and supply chain constraints all impacting our business. We expect these issues will persist into 2023 and have been managing our business to address and minimise the impact.

We are tightly controlling costs and have consolidated our supply chain, focusing on the best performing suppliers, and we have long-term agreements and hedges in place that offer reasonable protection against
near-term price increases. Inventory has increased across the Group, due to supply chain constraints, and we aim to reduce inventories in the second half of the year. In many of our long-term contracts we are able to pass on a proportion of higher input costs to our customers through commercial discipline on pricing and robust contract management.

We have faced some challenges in hiring, particularly for experienced engineers with certain skills and technical expertise. We are addressing this with actions to attract, train and retain talent. Our early years recruitment has been strong and our retention rates are good.

Delivering on our commitments

We are working across the Group to increase the productivity and efficiency of our operations and improve commercial discipline to drive a better and more balanced financial performance.

In May, we hosted an investor day at our Civil Aerospace operations in Derby and committed to medium-term financial targets for the business founded on five value drivers (see page 6). We have focused on these in the first half of 2022, with rigorous supply chain management, leaner manufacturing, and strong commercial discipline helping to address supply chain and inflation challenges. Our new engine programmes are driving fleet growth and will, as they mature, need less engineering time, enabling us to spend less and shift our focus towards extending time on wing and lowering shop visit costs.

We have committed to rebuilding our balance sheet in the medium-term. Our liquidity position remains strong with £7.3bn of liquidity including £2.8bn in cash at the period end. Net debt of £(5.1)bn included £1.9bn leases and we have no significant debt maturities before 2024. No interim shareholder payment will be made for 2022.

We have received all the required regulatory approvals for the sale of ITP Aero and expect the transaction to complete in the coming weeks. The proceeds will be used to reduce debt by repaying early the £2bn loan, which is supported by an 80% guarantee from UK Export Finance. This loan expires in 2025 and is our only drawn debt exposed to interest rate movements.

Outlook and financial guidance

Our Group guidance for 2022, as first set out on 24 February, is unchanged. We continue to expect:

·      low-to-mid-single digit underlying revenue growth

·      full year underlying operating profit margin to be broadly unchanged on the prior year (2021 FY: 3.8%)

·      modestly positive free cash flow in 2022

Our full year guidance is based on expected improvement in Civil Aerospace in the second half driven by planned higher spare large engine sales and large engine shop visits.

We are well positioned to deliver on our near and medium-term commitments despite the increasing challenges and risks around the pace of global economic growth, supply chain disruption and rising inflation that are expected to persist into next year.  

 

Results webcast and conference call

A webcast will be held at 09:00 (BST) today and details of how to join are provided below. Conference call details are also available for those who would prefer to dial-in. Downloadable materials will be available on the Investor Relations section of the Rolls-Royce website.

 

Webcast details

To register for the webcast, including Q&A participation, visit the following link:

https://edge.media-server.com/mmc/p/crfwe8bs

The same link will provide access to a replay of the webcast shortly after the event concludes.

 

Conference call details

To register for the conference call, visit the following link: https://register.vevent.com/register/BIb3ce38aad37f417d92343128228fb6bc

After registering you will receive a list of dial-in details and a personal PIN code.

 

Downloadable materials

Please visit the Investor Relations section of the Rolls-Royce website to download our Half Year Results materials: https://www.rolls-royce.com/investors/results-and-events.aspx

 

Trading update

Our next scheduled trading update will be on 3 November 2022.

 

Enquiries:

Investors: Isabel Green +44 7880 160976 / Jeremy Bragg +44 7795 840875

Media: Richard Wray +44 7810 850055

 

Photographs and broadcast-standard video are available at www.rolls-royce.com.

A PDF copy of this report can be downloaded from www.rolls-royce.com/investors.

 

This results announcement contains forward-looking statements. Any statements that express forecasts, expectations and projections are not guarantees of future performance and will not be updated. By their nature, these statements involve risk and uncertainty, and a number of factors could cause material differences to the actual results or developments. This report is intended to provide information to shareholders, is not designed to be relied upon by any other party, or for any other purpose and Rolls-Royce Holdings plc and its directors accept no liability to any other person other than under English law.

 

LSE: RR.; ADR: RYCEY; LEI: 213800EC7997ZBLZJH69



 

 

Underlying income statement 1

 

£ million

2022 H1

2021 H1

Change

Organic Change 2

M&A 3

FX

Underlying revenue

5,308

5,227

81

223

(148)

6

Underlying OE revenue

2,194

2,239

(45)

42

(76)

(11)

Underlying services revenue

3,114

2,988

126

181

(72)

17

Underlying gross profit

942

1,097

(155)

(135)

(19)

(1)

Gross margin %

17.7%

21.0%

(3.3)%pt

(3.4)%pt

 

 

Commercial and administrative costs

(499)

(444)

(55)

(71)

10

6

Research and development costs

(371)

(386)

15

8

4

3

Joint ventures and associates

53

40

13

11

2

Underlying operating profit

125

307

(182)

(187)

(5)

10

Underlying operating margin %

2.4%

5.9%

(3.5)%pt

(3.8)%pt

 

 

Financing costs

(236)

(174)

(62)

(62)

1

(1)

Underlying (loss)/profit before taxation

(111)

133

(244)

(249)

(4)

9

Taxation

(77)

(29)

(48)

(50)

1

1

(Loss)/profit for the period

(188)

104

(292)

(299)

(3)

10

Underlying (loss)/earnings per share (pence)

(2.24)

1.25

(3.49)

(3.61)

 

 

Note: H1 2021 transactions were translated at an achieved rate of £$1.39, close to the average prevailing exchange rate, whereas H1 2022 transactions were translated at £$1.50, close to the average rate of our hedge book.

Underlying revenue of £5.3bn was 4% higher led by market recovery in Power Systems and improvement in Civil Aerospace including a £241m LTSA catch up (2021 H1: £160m). Defence revenue was lower against a strong comparative partly due to the non-repeat of legacy spare parts sales in the prior period.

Underlying gross profit of £942m included a £219m Civil Aerospace LTSA catch up (2021 H1: £166m) partly offset by a £(29)m charge in Other businesses related to a legacy business and a £(22)m negative contract charge in Defence due to inflation risk. The £(135)m organic change also included the non-recurrence of legacy spare parts sales in Defence, which had a £45m positive profit impact in the prior period, a foreign exchange movement in Civil Aerospace of approximately £270m reflecting a one-off transactional revaluation credit in the prior period, and other movements which had a positive profit impact in the current period. After taking these items into account, gross profit was slightly ahead period on period.

Underlying operating profit was £125m, due to lower underlying gross profit and included £(371)m in research and development costs with an increase in spend in Defence, Power Systems and New Markets balanced by lower spend in Civil Aerospace. Commercial and administrative costs increased by 16% reflecting the absence of furlough assistance received in 2021, increased activity as markets recover in Power Systems and Civil Aerospace and the ramp-up of activity in New Markets.

Underlying loss before taxation of £(111)m included net financing costs of £(236)m of which £(162)m related to interest bearing debt.

Underlying loss for the year of £(188)m included a tax charge of £(77)m (2021 H1: £(29)m).

Underlying loss per share of (2.24)p was based on 8,345m weighted average shares in issue.

 

Business unit underlying performance

£ million

Underlying revenue

Organic Change 2

Underlying operating (loss)/profit

Organic Change 2

Trading cash flow

Change

Civil Aerospace

2,339

174

(79)

(124)

63

1,127

Defence

1,609

(164)

189

(86)

89

Power Systems

1,371

229

119

80

(76)

(147)

New Markets 4

1

(48)

(20)

(30)

1

Other businesses 4

(7)

(11)

(29)

(25)

(1)

21

Corporate/eliminations 4

(5)

(5)

(27)

(12)

(24)

(2)

Total (continuing operations)

5,308

223

125

(187)

21

1,000

For footnotes referenced in tables on pages 4-13, see page 13.

 



 

Civil Aerospace

 

£ million

2022 H1

Organic Change 2

FX

2021 H1

Change

Organic Change 2

Underlying revenue

2,339

174

(3)

2,168

8%

8%

Underlying OE revenue

660

(56)

(6)

722

(9)%

(8)%

Underlying services revenue

1,679

230

3

1,446

16%

16%

Underlying gross profit

256

(127)

3

380

(33)%

(33)%

Gross margin %

10.9%

 

 

17.5%

(6.6)%pt

(6.7)%pt

Commercial and administrative costs

(183)

(38)

(145)

26%

26%

Research and development costs

(202)

33

2

(237)

(15)%

(14)%

Joint ventures and associates

50

8

1

41

22%

20%

Underlying operating (loss)/profit

(79)

(124)

6

39



Underlying operating margin %

(3.4)%

 

 

1.8%

(5.2)%pt

(5.4)%pt

 

 

2022 H1

2021 H1

Change

Trading cash flow

63

(1,064)

1,127

 

2022 H1 key operational metrics:

Large Engine

Business Aviation/ Regional

Total

Change

OE deliveries

78

71

149

1

LTSA engine flying hours (EFH) (000's)

4,524

1,593

6,117

1,521

Total LTSA shop visits

321

156

477

27

…of which major shop visits

113

150

263

15

Note: H1 2021 transactions were translated at an achieved rate of £$1.39, close to the average prevailing exchange rate, whereas H1 2022 transactions were translated at £$1.50, close to the average rate of our hedge book.

 

Large engine LTSA flying hours were 4.5m, up 43% year on year. We are still in a relatively early stage of recovery at around 60% of 2019 levels. Total LTSA engines flying hours (which includes Business Aviation and Regional flying hours) of 6.1m were up 33% year on year. Inflation and supply chain challenges have increased and we are addressing the impact through tight cost control and robust long-term contracts with suppliers and customers that aim to pass through inflation risk. Shop visit volumes and OE deliveries were lower than planned in the period, mainly due to supply chain constraints and delays in spare engine sales. Shop visits and OE deliveries are both expected to accelerate in the second half as supply chain actions take effect and assembly rates improve.

Underlying revenue of £2.3bn, up 8% on the prior period. OE revenue of £660m was down 8% reflecting the mix of engine deliveries with fewer large spare engines sold and more Business Aviation engines. Services revenue of £1,679m was up 16% on the prior period and included £241m positive LTSA
catch-ups (2021 H1: £160m).

Underlying gross profit of £256m was £127m lower than the prior period and included £219m of LTSA catch-ups (2021 H1: £166m) and other movements which had a positive profit impact in the current period. These were offset by a foreign exchange movement in Civil Aerospace of approximately £270m reflecting a one-off transactional revaluation credit in the prior period. As a result, gross profit was broadly flat on the prior period. Approximately half of the revaluation unwound in 2021 H2.

Underlying operating loss of £(79)m reflected the lower gross profit and included £(183)m in commercial and administrative costs, £(38)m more than the prior period due to business recovery and the absence of government furlough assistance schemes. This was partly offset by a £33m reduction in research and development costs.

Trading cash flow was £63m, £1.1bn better than 2021 H1 driven mostly by higher EFH receipts. Shop visits also increased but at a slower pace. Working capital was modestly negative, but significantly better than the prior period, with higher inventory partly offset by increased payables with higher RRSP payables and warranties reflecting the recovery in flying hour and shop visit volumes in the first half. Trading cash flow included £(265)m outflow related to the settlement of excess foreign exchange derivative contracts and there was limited net impact from OE concessions in the period.

Outlook

Engine flying hours are expected to maintain the current trajectory and return to pre-pandemic levels in 2024 as global travel restrictions are lifted. In 2022, we expect 350-400 total OE deliveries and 1,100-1,200 total shop visits. We are focused on keeping costs low and maintaining productivity gains as shop visits increase. This supports our updated expectation for good (previously modest) revenue growth and improved profitability as well as a substantial improvement in trading cash flow in 2022, compared with the prior year.

 

Civil Aerospace medium-term outlook

On 13 May we announced new medium-term targets for our Civil Aerospace business based on a simplified value drivers framework and supported by expected flying hours recovery by 2024. A replay of the event is available on our website. We have guided:

·      Underlying revenue growth at a low double-digit percentage compound annual growth rate

·      Underlying operating profit margin expansion to high single digit percentage

·      Trading cash flow to comfortably exceed operating profit

Our five Civil Aerospace value drivers highlight the operational side of our business and provide a deeper understanding of how the changes we have implemented are making it a better quality, more resilient, and more agile business which is set up to increase returns and deliver long-term sustainable growth.

1.   Maximise service receipts with better pricing on customer contracts on a growing fleet as the market recovers

2.   Reduce service costs by extending the time between shop visits (time on wing) as engine programmes mature and reducing shop visit costs with more repair and reuse of spare parts

3.   Improve OE margins through increased productivity, controlled overhead costs and a focused purchasing strategy to reduce the cost of components and assembly

4.   Grow Business Aviation with the ramp-up of the Pearl engine programme and market share gains

5.   Investment cycle has passed its peak with less intense new product introduction, and the nature of spend reflects increased partnering to reduce capital intensity and a rebalancing towards cost reduction and product maturity work

 

Medium-term Civil Aerospace guidance summary

FY 2021

Medium-term

DRIVERS



Engine deliveries (large and business engines)

309

Mid teens CAGR

Shop visit volumes (large, business and regional engines)

953

Low double-digit CAGR

LTSA engine flying hours (large, business and regional engines)

10.3m

Approaching 2019 levels

FINANCIAL (underlying)

 

 

OE revenue

£1,612m

Low teens CAGR

Services revenue

£2,924m

High single-digit CAGR

Total revenue

£4,536m

Low double-digit CAGR

R&D charge as % of sales

10%

~5%

Operating profit margin

(4)%

High single-digit

Change in net LTSA balance

£66m

~£500m average pa

Trading cash flow

£(1,670)m

Comfortably exceeding operating profit

Base year for medium-term compound average growth rate (CAGR) is 2021



 

Defence

 

£ million

2022 H1

Organic Change 2

FX

2021 H1

Change

Organic Change 2

Underlying revenue

1,609

(164)

52

1,721

(7)%

(9)%

Underlying OE revenue

697

(42)

20

719

(3)%

(6)%

Underlying services revenue

912

(122)

32

1,002

(9)%

(12)%

Underlying gross profit

326

(77)

8

395

(17)%

(19)%

Gross margin %

20.3%

 


23.0%

(2.7)%pt

(2.5)%pt

Commercial and administrative costs

(86)

(6)

(1)

(79)

9%

8%

Research and development costs

(53)

(5)

(1)

(47)

13%

11%

Joint ventures and associates

2

2

Underlying operating profit

189

(86)

6

269

(30)%

(32)%

Underlying operating margin %

11.7%

 

 

15.6%

(3.9)%pt

(3.9)%pt

 

 

2022 H1

2021 H1

Change

Trading cash flow

89

89

Our Defence business continued to perform well, with the business cycle normalising in 2022 following two years of increased support from customers to offset COVID-19 challenges. We achieved our first milestone on the B-52 programme with the completion of a review in support of the F130 integration activities onto the airframe. The rapid twin pod test to validate our integrated design for the B-52 will commence in the coming months on our outdoor test stand at NASA's Stennis site in Mississippi.

Our Defence portfolio of long-cycle products is not immediately exposed to short term changes in defence demand, but the increase in military activity and spending this year has further underpinned the longer-term outlook for the business. We have seen continued impetus on key future programmes including Tempest, the new fighter jet programme which is targeting entry into service in 2035, and the next generation nuclear submarine programmes for the UK. We await the decision on the Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA) programme in the US, with the outcome expected in the coming months.

Order intake was £1.4bn with a book-to-bill ratio of 0.9x. Our £6.5bn order book and the long operational life of our products give high visibility of future revenue. Order intake in the first half included a new 11-year contract to support the Adour engine, which powers the Hawk jet trainer aircraft.

Underlying revenue decreased 9% to £1.6bn. Timing on the signature of the next tranche for the
F-35B and lower spare engine sales in Naval led to a 6% reduction in OE revenue. Services revenue was £122m (12%) lower partly due to the non-repeat of a large legacy spare parts sales in 2021. The remainder of the decline related to engine flying hours and delays from suppliers.

Underlying gross profit of £326m was £77m (19%) lower than the prior period including the
non-recurrence of legacy spare parts sales in Defence, which had a £45m positive profit impact in the prior period. The 20.3% gross margin in 2022 H1 reflected a more normal mix of activity. Product margin remained strong through the period despite supply chain and labour inflationary challenges, and a £(22)m charge in respect of inflationary increases to the costs to deliver long term services contracts.

Underlying operating profit was £189m, a decrease of 32% compared with 2021 H1 mostly due to the lower gross profit. Commercial and administrative costs increased by £6m. Research and development costs were up by £5m including investment in directed energy and future programmes. We are also playing a key role in Project Pele which will deliver the first advanced microreactor in the US. 

Trading cash flow at £89m was flat year on year. The increase in inventory reflected supply chain challenges and lower deliveries. This was offset by higher payables and a one-off customer receipt. 

Outlook

We expect modest revenue growth in 2022, helped by an easier comparable in the second half of the year, with strong order book cover securing near term activity in all our end markets. We are increasing investment to support future growth and recent orders, develop products that will help decarbonise the military, and modernise our facilities. This, combined with a return to more usual levels of spare parts sales in 2022, is expected to result in a low double digit operating margin (new guidance) and strong cash conversion.



 

-

Power Systems









 

£ million

2022 H1

Organic Change 2

M&A 3

FX

2021 H1

Change

Organic Change 2

Underlying revenue

1,371

229

2

(41)

1,181

16%

20%

Underlying OE revenue

849

153

2

(24)

718

18%

21%

Underlying services revenue

522

76

(17)

463

13%

17%

Underlying gross profit

401

110

1

(11)

301

33%

37%

Gross margin %

29.2%

 

 

 

25.5%

3.7%pt

3.7%pt

Commercial and administrative costs

(204)

(19)

5

(190)

7%

10%

Research and development costs

(79)

(12)

2

(69)

14%

17%

Joint ventures and associates

1

1

1

(1)



Underlying operating profit

119

80

1

(3)

41

190%

195%

Underlying operating margin %

8.7%

 

 

 

3.5%

5.2%pt

5.1%pt















 


2022 H1

2021 H1

Change

Trading cash flow

(76)

71

(147)

 

Demand for our products remains very strong with continued record order intake in the first half. Demand has been strongest for power generation with orders including mission critical backup power for data centres for very large customers worldwide. Global supply chain challenges have continued to impact the availability of key components. This is restricting our pace of revenue recovery and drove a substantial increase in inventory in the first half which we aim to reduce in the second half. We have a dedicated taskforce in place to mitigate risk and accelerate OE deliveries with actions such as increased risk monitoring to identify and resolve supply chain issues early, and technical substitution of certain cast parts with 3D printed alternatives.

Order intake of £2.1bn was 53% higher than the prior period and included our highest quarter for order intake on record. The book-to-bill ratio was 1.5x with strongest growth in demand in power generation governmental and industrial end markets. Our order cover for 2023 is building well and we are already at full capacity for 2023 in some market segments.

Underlying revenue of £1.4bn was up 20%. Aftermarket services grew 17% with increased activity in both stationary and mobile solutions. OE revenue was up 21% with particularly strong sales in power generation, marine and governmental end markets.  

Underlying gross profit grew by 37% to £401m and gross margin increased by 3.7%pt. This reflected the mix of activity with an increase in higher margin services and lower warranty costs as well as improved utilisation in our manufacturing facilities compared with the prior period when we were in the earlier stages of recovery.

Underlying operating profit was £119m, up £80m giving an operating margin of 8.7%. The increase in commercial and administrative costs reflected higher employee costs as activity increased as well as wage inflation pressures. The 17% increase in research and development costs reflects investment in new product development and transitioning products to sustainable fuel alternatives as we help our customers towards net-zero emissions.

Trading cash outflow was £(76)m (2021 H1: £71m), with a negative cash conversion as inventory increased to meet growth demand and to manage the supply chain challenges. It also reflected our investment in a 54% non-controlling stake in electrolysis stack specialist Hoeller Electrolyzer.

Outlook

We expect good revenue growth in 2022 supported by record order intake, partly held back by the current global supply chain constraints. We expect our operating margin to be broadly flat, with higher activity levels utilisation offset by continued inflationary pressures and increased research and development in net zero solutions. Cash conversion is expected to improve in the second half with some of the recent inventory build unwinding, but is still expected to be lower for the full year.   



 

 

New Markets

 

£ million

2022 H1

Organic Change 2

FX

2021 H1

Change

Organic Change 2

Underlying revenue

1

(1)

2

(50)%

Underlying services revenue

1

(1)

2

(50)%

Underlying gross loss

(2)

(2)

Commercial and administrative costs

(9)

(9)

Research and development costs

(37)

(9)

(28)

32%

32%

Underlying operating loss

(48)

(20)

(28)

71%

71%

 

 

2022 H1

2021 H1

Change

Trading cash flow

(30)

(31)

1

 

New Markets is our reporting segment for investment phase businesses focused on addressing the opportunities being created by the transition to net zero and addressing the climate change challenge. This segment comprises two businesses with no significant revenues but high future potential: Rolls-Royce SMR and Rolls-Royce Electrical.

Our small modular reactor (SMR) design is going through the UK Generic Design Assessment (GDA) process, which is expected to take several years to complete. The estimated costs are mostly covered by third party investment and a UK Government grant in addition to £50m (approximately 10% of the total) self-funded by the Group. Factory sites where we will make the heavy vessel modules for our SMR are being identified in preparation for the build process, with minimal infrastructure investment prior to receipt of first order. We welcomed the decision by the European Parliament this year to categorise nuclear power as an environmentally sustainable energy source in the EU taxonomy for sustainable activities.

Our Electrical business supports electrical engineering projects across the Group enabling us to take an agile approach to specialist engineering resource. In the first half, we announced the development of turbogenerator technology which includes a new small engine designed for hybrid-electric applications in Civil Aerospace and Defence. In July we signed an agreement with Hyundai Motor Group to collaborate on bringing all-electric propulsion and hydrogen fuel cell technology to the advanced air mobility market. Our urban air mobility customers are targeting entry into service by 2026, using our torque dense, compact, and highly reliable electrical propulsion units.

Underlying operating loss of £(48)m was £(20)m greater than the prior period comparative as we grew the workforce in both businesses with a focus on engineering capability for research and development activities. The rate of cost increase is slightly lower than expected as a result of a tight labour market in experienced engineers with certain skills and technical expertise.

Trading cash flow of £(30)m was £18m better than operating losses mainly due to the receipt of third party funding and investment for the SMR programme.

Outlook

Investment in research and development will continue to increase in the second half of the year as we add to the engineering teams and take our new products through development and regulatory processes. Trading cash outflow guidance has been updated, and is now expected to be around two thirds of the underlying operating loss in 2022 (previously £100m better), with the difference mainly due to the phased receipt of secured third party equity investment in Rolls-Royce SMR.

 



 

Statutory income statement

 

 

£ million

2022 H1 

2021 H1 

Change 

Revenue

5,600 

5,159 

441 

Gross profit

1,062 

814 

248 

Operating profit

223 

38 

185 

Gain/(loss) on disposal/acquisition of businesses

77 

(7)

84 

Net financing (costs)/income

(2,054)

83 

(2,137)

(Loss)/profit before taxation

(1,754)

114 

(1,868)

Taxation

143 

280 

(137)

(Loss)/profit from continuing operations

(1,611)

394 

(2,005)

(Loss)/earnings per share from continuing operations (pence)

(19.29)

4.73 

(24.02)

 

The adjustments between the underlying income statement and the statutory income statement are set out in note 2 to the condensed consolidated interim financial statements.

 

Statutory revenue of £5.6bn was 9% higher than the prior period. Along with the improvements in underlying revenue, statutory revenue benefited from strengthening USD exchange rates.

Gross profit of £1.1bn was 30% higher than the prior period. Gross profit included a £219m LTSA catch-up in Civil Aerospace (2021 H1: £166m) and other movements which had a positive profit impact in the current period, partly offset by a lower contribution from Defence due to the non-repeat of legacy spare parts sales in the prior period. Gross profit also benefited from strengthening USD exchange rates.

Operating profit improved to £223m from £38m in the prior period. Research and development costs were 4% lower. Commercial and administrative costs increased on the prior period with strengthening USD exchange rates, non-repeat of furlough assistance received in 2021, increased activity as markets recover in Power Systems and Civil Aerospace and increased headcount in New Markets as we grow our SMR and Electrical businesses.

Loss before taxation of £(1.8)bn included £(2.1)bn of net financing costs, of which £(1.8)bn were
mark-to-market on derivative contracts and in year foreign exchange losses, and £(0.2)bn net interest payable. It also included a £76m gain on the disposal of AirTanker Holdings.

Loss from continuing operations of £(1.6)bn included a tax credit of £143m. The tax credit mainly relates to the increase in the UK deferred tax asset on unrealised foreign exchange losses on derivative contracts together with tax on profits and losses in overseas jurisdictions. The £280m credit in the prior period mostly related to movements in deferred tax balances due to the UK tax rate change from 19% to 25%, effective from April 2023.



 

Balance sheet

 

£ million

30 Jun 2022

31 Dec 2021

Change

Intangible assets

4,054

4,041

13

Property, plant and equipment

3,899

3,917

(18)

Right-of-use assets

1,116

1,203

(87)

Joint ventures and associates

466

404

62

Contract assets and liabilities

(9,646)

(8,836)

(810)

Working capital 5

1,870

1,458

412

Provisions

(2,248)

(1,582)

(666)

Net debt 6

(5,126)

(5,110)

(16)

Net financial assets and liabilities 6

(4,003)

(3,034)

(969)

Net post-retirement scheme surpluses/(deficits)

48

(225)

273

Taxation

1,953

1,787

166

Held for sale

1,320

1,305

15

Other net assets and liabilities

36

36

Net liabilities

(6,261)

(4,636)

(1,625)

Other items

 

 

 

USD hedge book (USDbn)

21

22

(1)

Civil LTSA asset

928

915

13

Civil LTSA liability

(7,664)

(7,129)

(535)

Civil net LTSA liability

(6,736)

(6,214)

(522)

 

Key drivers of balance sheet movements are detailed below:

Contract assets and liabilities: The £(810)m movement in the net liability balance was mainly driven by Civil Aerospace LTSA revenue billed being ahead of revenue recognised in the period, together with foreign exchange movements. In addition, there was an increase in advance payments received in Defence.

Working capital: The £412m increase reflected a £780m increase in inventory driven by supply chain issues, delayed outputs and a ramp up in preparation for second half sales with the largest increases in Civil Aerospace and Power Systems with a more modest increase in Defence. A £610m increase in receivables reflected increased sales volumes and foreign exchange impacts. A £(978)m increase in payables reflected higher levels of purchases to support expected sales growth in future periods, as well as foreign exchange impacts due to the stronger USD.

Provisions: The £666m increase primarily reflected the adoption of the amendment to IAS 37 for Onerous Contracts - Cost of Fulfilling a Contract which increased contract loss provisions by £723m on 1 January 2022. The amendment clarifies that the direct cost of fulfilling a contract comprises the incremental costs of fulfilling that contract and also an allocation of other costs that relate directly to fulfilling contracts.

Net debt: Remained broadly flat at £5.1bn.

Net financial assets and liabilities: £(969)m movement was primarily driven by the change in the fair value of foreign exchange contracts due to the impact of the movement in £:US$ exchange rates from £:$1.35 at
31 December 2021 to £:$1.21 at 30 June 2022. 

Net post-retirement scheme surpluses: £273m movement primarily driven by an increase in discount rates on pension liabilities.

Taxation: The net tax asset increased by £166m, driven by £213m related to the increase in the deferred tax asset on unrealised losses on derivative contracts, which was partially offset by a reduction in net deferred tax assets on movements in post-retirement schemes (£85m).

 

   


Funds flow statement 7

 


 

£ million

2022 H1

2021 H1 8

Change

Underlying operating profit

125

307

(182)

Operating profit/(loss) from discontinued operations

68

(93)

161

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

455

504

(49)

Lease payments (capital plus interest)

(114)

(171)

57

Expenditure on intangible assets

(82)

(71)

(11)

Capital expenditure (PPE)

(115)

(124)

9

Movement in inventory

(692)

(219)

(473)

Movement in receivables/payables/contract balances (excluding Civil LTSA)

423

(400)

823

Civil Aerospace net LTSA balance change

433

(108)

541

Movement in provisions

(116)

(136)

20

Cash flows on settlement of excess derivative contracts

(265)

(303)

38

Fees on undrawn facilities

(23)

(35)

12

Net interest received and paid

(114)

(81)

(33)

Cash flow on financial instruments net of realised losses included in operating profit

35

(52)

87

Other

(6)

27

(33)

Trading cash flow

12

(955)

967

…. Of which relates to continuing operations

21

(979)

1,000

Contributions to defined benefit pensions in excess of underlying charge

(1)

(94)

93

Taxation paid

(88)

(102)

14

Group free cash flow

(77)

(1,151)

1,074

…. Of which relates to continuing operations

(68)

(1,174)

1,106

Disposals and acquisitions

(18)

(22)

4

Exceptional Group restructuring

(48)

(134)

86

Payment of financial penalties

(156)

156

Excluding: settlement of excess derivative contracts

265

303

(38)

Excluding: capital expenditure (including investment from non-controlling interests and movement in investments)

213

223

(10)

Excluding: capital element of lease payments

95

147

(52)

Excluding: interest paid

172

150

22

Other

(5)

(39)

34

Net cash inflow/(outflow) from operating activities

597

(679)

1,276

Key changes in the funds flow items are described below:

Expenditure on intangible assets: expenditure of £(82)m in the period (2021 H1: £(71)m) included £(48)m capitalised research and development (2021 H1: £(41)m), which was modestly higher than the prior period reflecting the mix of spend across Civil Aerospace engine programmes.

Capital expenditure: investment of £(115)m was £9m lower than the prior period, largely reflecting reduced spend in Civil Aerospace, primarily due to timing impacts, partly offset by higher investment in Power Systems and in New Markets.

Increase in inventory: global supply chain constraints and parts supply shortages resulted in a £(692)m outflow as inventory increased in the first half, with the largest increases in Civil Aerospace and Power Systems. In Civil Aerospace work-in-progress inventory grew, as engine output delays more than offset the impact of lower incoming parts from suppliers, alongside a higher level of assembled engines held in inventory due partly to the timing of spare engine sales. Power Systems inventory also grew, with higher work-in-progress due to parts shortages as well as planned inventory build to support the expected increase in sales in the second half. There was a more modest increase in Defence.

Movement in receivables/payables/contract balances (excluding Civil LTSA): inflow of £423m in the period (2021 H1: £(400)m) driven mainly by Civil Aerospace including higher trade payables and joint venture payables due largely to timing at the end of 2021, as well as higher RRSP payables and warranties due to the recovery in flying hours in the first half and planned increase in shop visit volumes in the second half. Defence also saw an increase in contract liabilities in the period, reflecting advance payments and engine deposits.

Movement in Civil Aerospace net LTSA creditor: the £433m movement (2021 H1: £(108)m) reflected EFH invoiced receipts of £1,648m (2021 H1: £1,002m) offset by Civil Aerospace LTSA revenue in the income statement of £1,215m (2021 H1: £1,110m). The increase in EFH invoiced receipts reflected higher engine flying hours, recovery in customer invoicing of minimum utilisation clauses, and modest timing benefits, while the higher LTSA revenue was driven by £81m higher positive LTSA catch-ups year-on-year, and £24m due to modestly higher shop visit volumes.

Movement in provisions: the £(116)m movement (2021 H1: £(136)m) was largely in Civil Aerospace. It included a small net increase in the Trent 1000 provision reflecting delays in certification, more than offset by a reduction of contract loss provisions primarily due to a reversal reflecting a change in the discount rate due to higher inflation and interest rates. £143m of provisions were utilised in the period, mainly for warranty and guarantees, contract losses and Trent 1000 costs.

Cash flows on settlement of excess derivative contracts: relates to the cash settlement costs in the period for the offsetting foreign exchange contracts that were entered into to reduce the size of the US Dollar hedge book in 2020. The cash settlement costs of £1.7bn occur across 2020-2026, of which £0.8bn remains to be paid in future periods including £(61)m due to be settled in the second half.

Interest: the net payment of £(114)m in the year was higher than the prior period (2021 H1: (£(81)m), reflecting the full impact during the period of the drawdown of the £2bn UK Export Finance (UKEF) facility in June 2021.

Contributions to defined benefit pensions: cash contributions were broadly in line with the income statement charge in the first half. In the prior period cash contributions were £94m higher than the income statement charge, reflecting payment deferrals from 2020.

 

 


 

Notes to financial tables and commentary on pages 4-13:

1   Underlying performance excludes the impact of period end mark-to-market adjustments, the effect of acquisition accounting and business disposals, impairment of goodwill and other non-current and current assets, and exceptional items. Adjustments between the underlying income statement and the reported income statement are set out in note 2 in the condensed consolidated interim financial statements on page 32.

2   Organic change at constant translational currency (constant currency) applying FY21 average rates to 2021 and 2022, excluding M&A. All commentary is provided on an organic basis unless otherwise stated.

3   M&A includes 2021 Power Systems acquisitions comprising of Shanghai, Cooltech and joint venture Kowry and Other businesses 2021 disposals of Bergen Engines AS and Civil Nuclear Instrumentation & Controls.

4   Other businesses include the trading results of the Bergen Engines AS business until the date of disposal on 31 December 2021 and the results of the Civil Nuclear Instrumentation & Control business until the date of disposal on 5 November 2021. The trading results of the UK Civil Nuclear business have been included in Other businesses. The underlying results of Other businesses and Corporate and Inter-segment activities for 30 June 2021 have been restated to reclassify the results of the Group's SMR and electrical activities as New Markets.

5   Net working capital includes inventory, trade receivables and payables and similar assets and liabilities.

6   Net debt includes £102m (31 Dec 2021: £37m) of the fair value of derivatives included in fair value hedges and the element of fair value relating to exchange differences on the underlying principal of derivatives in cash flow hedges. Net debt has been adjusted to exclude net debt held for sale.                                                       

7   The derivation of the summary funds flow statement above from the reported cash flow from operating activities is included on page 53.     

8   The comparative information for the period ended 30 June 2021 has been re-presented to be on a comparable basis with the definition of underlying results. There is no change to trading or group free cash flow.              

A reconciliation of alternative performance measures to their statutory equivalent is provided on pages 52 and 53.

 



 

Condensed consolidated interim financial statements

Condensed consolidated income statement

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Half-year to 30 June 2022

 

Half-year to

30 June 2021



 

Notes

£m 

£m

 

Continuing operations


 


 


 

Revenue


 

2

5,600

5,159

 

Cost of sales 1


 


(4,538)

(4,345)

 

Gross profit


 

2

1,062

814

 

Commercial and administrative costs 


 

2

(514)

(424)

 

Research and development costs


 

2, 3

(373)

(390)

 

Share of results of joint ventures and associates


 


48

38

 

Operating profit


 


223

38

 

Gain/(loss) arising on acquisition and disposal of businesses


 

19

77

(7)

 

Profit before financing and taxation


 


300

31

 

 


 


 


 

Financing income 2


 

4

215

280

 

Financing costs 2


 

4

(2,269)

(197)

 

Net financing (costs)/income


 


(2,054)

83

 



 


 


 

(Loss)/profit before taxation


 


(1,754)

114

 

Taxation


 

5

143

280

 

(Loss)/profit for the period from continuing operations


 


(1,611)

394

 

 


 


 


 

Discontinued operations


 


 


 

Profit for the period


 


60

16

 

Costs of disposal of discontinued operations


 


(4)

(17)

 

Profit/(loss) for the period from discontinued operations


 

19

56

(1)

 

 


 


 


 

(Loss)/profit for the period


 


(1,555)

393

 

 


 


 


 

Attributable to:


 


 


 

Ordinary shareholders


 


(1,554)

393

 

Non-controlling interests (NCI)


 


(1)

 

(Loss)/profit for the period


 


(1,555)

393

 

Other comprehensive income/(expense)


 


610

(145)

 

Total comprehensive (expense)/income for the period


 


(945)

248

 



 


 


 

 


 


 


 

(Loss)/earnings per ordinary share attributable to ordinary shareholders:


 

6

 


 

From continuing operations:


 


 


 

Basic


 


(19.29)p

4.73p

 

Diluted


 


(19.29)p

4.72p

 



 


 


 

From continuing and discontinued operations:


 

 

 


 

Basic


 


(18.62)p

4.72p

 

Diluted


 


(18.62)p

4.71p

 

Underlying earnings per ordinary share are shown in note 6.


 


 


 

 

 

 

 

 


 











1   Cost of sales includes a charge for expected credit losses of £28m (30 June 2021: £48m). Further details can be found in note 10.

2  Included within financing are fair value changes on derivative contracts. Further details can be found in notes 2, 4 and 12.

  



 

Condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022



Half-year to 30 June 2022

Half-year to

30 June 2021


Notes

£m

£m

(Loss)/profit for the period

 

(1,555)

393

Other comprehensive income/(expense) (OCI)

 

 


   Actuarial movements in post-retirement schemes

16

329

(12)

   Revaluation to fair value of other investments


(5)

   Share of OCI of joint ventures and associates


1

(4)

   Related tax movements


(85)

16

Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss

 

240

  

 

 


   Foreign exchange translation differences on foreign operations

 

375

(174)

   Cash flow hedge reserve reclassified to income statement on disposal of businesses

19

62

Movement on fair values debited to cash flow hedge reserve

 

8

(41)

Reclassified to income statement from cash flow hedge reserve

 

(88)

38

Costs of hedging

 

4

   Share of OCI of joint ventures and associates


32

   Related tax movements


9

   Items that will be reclassified to profit or loss

 

370

(145)

 

 

 


Total other comprehensive income/(expense)

 

610

(145)

 

 

 


Total comprehensive (expense)/income for the period

 

(945)

248

 

 

 


Attributable to:

 

 


Ordinary shareholders

 

(944)

248

Non-controlling interests

 

(1)

Total comprehensive (expense)/income for the period

 

(945)

248

 

 

 

 

Total comprehensive (expense)/income for the period attributable to ordinary shareholders arises from:

 

 

 

Continuing operations

 

(1,001)

316

Discontinued operations

 

57

(68)

Total comprehensive (expense)/income for the period attributable to ordinary shareholders

 

(944)

248



 

Condensed consolidated balance sheet

At 30 June 2022



30 June

2022

31 December 2021


Notes

£m

£m

ASSETS


 


Intangible assets

7

4,054

4,041

Property, plant and equipment

8

3,899

3,917

Right-of-use assets

9

1,116

1,203

Investments - joint ventures and associates


466

404

Investments - other


36

36

Other financial assets

12

433

361

Deferred tax assets


2,433

2,249

Post-retirement scheme surpluses

16

1,157

1,148

Non-current assets


13,594

13,359

Inventories


4,446

3,666

Trade receivables and other assets

10

5,993

5,383

Contract assets

11

1,498

1,473

Taxation recoverable


97

90

Other financial assets

12

136

46

Short-term investments


1

8

Cash and cash equivalents


2,747

2,621

Current assets


14,918

13,287

Assets held for sale

19

2,101

2,028

TOTAL ASSETS


30,613

28,674

 


 


LIABILITIES


 


Borrowings and lease liabilities

13

(321)

(279)

Other financial liabilities

12

(992)

(689)

Trade payables and other liabilities

14

(6,681)

(6,016)

Contract liabilities

11

(4,214)

(3,599)

Current tax liabilities


(113)

(101)

Provisions for liabilities and charges

15

(567)

(475)

Current liabilities 


(12,888)

(11,159)

Borrowings and lease liabilities

13

(7,655)

(7,497)

Other financial liabilities

12

(3,478)

(2,715)

Trade payables and other liabilities

14

(1,888)

(1,575)

Contract liabilities

11

(6,930)

(6,710)

Deferred tax liabilities


(464)

(451)

Provisions for liabilities and charges

15

(1,681)

(1,107)

Post-retirement scheme deficits

16

(1,109)

(1,373)

Non-current liabilities 


(23,205)

(21,428)

Liabilities associated with assets held for sale

19

(781)

(723)

TOTAL LIABILITIES


(36,874)

(33,310)

 


 


NET LIABILITIES

 

(6,261)

(4,636)

 


 


EQUITY


 


Called-up share capital


1,674

1,674

Share premium


1,012

1,012

Capital redemption reserve


166

165

Hedging reserves


(50)

(45)

Merger reserve


650

650

Translation reserve


717

342

Accumulated losses


(10,460)

(8,460)

Equity attributable to ordinary shareholders


(6,291)

(4,662)

Non-controlling interests


30

26

TOTAL EQUITY


(6,261)

(4,636)



 

Condensed consolidated cash flow statement

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022


Notes

Half-year to 30 June 2022

£m

Half-year to

30 June 2021

£m

Reconciliation of cash flows from operating activities


 


Operating profit from continuing operations


223

38

Operating profit/(loss) from discontinued operations

19

68

(93)

Operating profit/(loss)


291

(55)

Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment


16

2

Share of results of joint ventures and associates


(48)

(38)

Dividends received from joint ventures and associates


19

14

Amortisation and impairment of intangible assets

7

138

159

Depreciation and impairment of property, plant and equipment

8

203

243

Depreciation and impairment of right-of-use assets

9

127

128

Adjustment of amounts payable under residual value guarantees within lease liabilities 1


(1)

(3)

Impairment of and other movements on investments


2

Decrease in provisions


(94)

(211)

Increase in inventories


(692)

(219)

Movement in trade receivables/payables and other assets/liabilities


183

(136)

Movement in contract assets/liabilities


682

(178)

Financial penalties paid 2


(156)

Cash flows on other financial assets and liabilities held for operating purposes


(167)

(45)

Interest received


6

3

Net defined benefit post-retirement cost recognised in profit before financing

16

27

26

Cash funding of defined benefit post-retirement schemes

16

(29)

(131)

Share-based payments


24

18

Net cash inflow/(outflow) from operating activities before taxation


685

(577)

Taxation paid


(88)

(102)

Net cash inflow/(outflow) from operating activities


597

(679)

 


 

 

Cash flows from investing activities


 


Net movement in other investments


(5)

(6)

Additions of intangible assets


(94)

(89)

Disposals of intangible assets

7

5

2

Purchases of property, plant and equipment


(125)

(126)

Disposals of property, plant and equipment


25

5

Disposal of businesses

19

179

(8)

Movement in investments in joint ventures and associates and other movements on investments


(14)

(2)

Movement in short-term investments


7

(1)

Net cash outflow from investing activities


(22)

(225)

 


 


Cash flows from financing activities


 


Repayment of loans


(23)

(942)

Proceeds from increase in loans


1

2,003

Capital element of lease payments


(95)

(147)

Net cash flow from (decrease)/increase in borrowings and leases


(117)

914

Interest paid


(120)

(84)

Interest element of lease payments


(29)

(31)

Fees paid on undrawn facilities


(23)

(35)

Cash flows on settlement of excess derivative contracts 3

4

(265)

(303)

Transactions with NCI 4


25

NCI on formation of subsidiary


2

Redemption of C Shares


(1)

(2)

Net cash (outflow)/inflow from financing activities


(530)

461

 


 


Change in cash and cash equivalents


45

(443)

Cash and cash equivalents at 1 January


2,639

3,496

Exchange gains/(losses) on cash and cash equivalents


98

(75)

Cash and cash equivalents at 30 June 5


2,782

2,978

 



 

 

Condensed consolidated cash flow statement continued

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022

 

1  Where the cost of meeting residual value guarantees is less than that previously estimated, as costs have been mitigated or liabilities waived by the lessor, the lease liability has been remeasured. To the extent that the value of this remeasurement exceeds the value of the right-of-use asset, the reduction in the lease liability is credited to cost of sales.

2 Relates to penalties paid on agreements with investigating bodies.

3   During the period, the Group incurred a cash outflow of £265m as a result of settling foreign exchange contracts that were originally in place to sell $1,600m receipts. Further detail is provided in note 4.

4  Relates to NCI investment received in the period, in respect of Rolls-Royce SMR Limited.

5  The Group considers overdrafts (repayable on demand) and cash held for sale to be an integral part of its cash management activities and these are included in cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of the cash flow statement.

In deriving the condensed consolidated cash flow statement, movements in balance sheet line items have been adjusted for non-cash items. The cash flow in the period includes the sale of goods and services to joint ventures and associates.

 


Half-year to 30 June 2022

£m

Half-year to

30 June 2021

£m

Reconciliation of movements in cash and cash equivalents to movements in net debt

 


Change in cash and cash equivalents

45

(443)

Cash flow from decrease/(increase) in borrowings and leases

117

(914)

Less: settlement of related derivatives included in fair value of swaps below

6

Cash flow from (decrease)/increase in short-term investments

(7)

1

Change in net debt resulting from cash flows

155

(1,350)

New leases and other non-cash adjustments to lease liabilities and borrowings

(67)

(17)

Exchange (losses)/gains on net debt

(162)

2

Fair value adjustments

24

144

Reclassifications

19

Movement in net debt

(50)

(1,202)

Net debt at 1 January

(5,194)

(3,827)

Net debt at 30 June excluding the fair value of swaps

(5,244)

(5,029)

Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings

102

57

Net debt at 30 June

(5,142)

(4,972)



 

Condensed consolidated cash flow statement continued

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022

 

The movement in net debt (defined by the Group as including the items shown below) is as follows:


At 1 January

Funds flow

Exchange differences

Fair value adjustments

Reclassifi-cations 1  

Other movements

At 30 June


£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash at bank and in hand

795

182

29

1,006

Money market funds

49

174

223

Short-term deposits

1,777

(327)

68

1,518

Cash and cash equivalents (per balance sheet)

2,621

29

97

2,747

Cash and cash equivalents included within assets held for sale

25

11

1

37

Overdrafts

(7)

5

(2)

Cash and cash equivalents

(per cash flow statement)

2,639

45

98

2,782

Short-term investments

8

(7)

1

Other current borrowings

(2)

1

(1)

Non-current borrowings

(6,023)

(98)

25

(23)

(6,119)

Borrowings included within liabilities held for sale

(59)

21

(1)

(1)

(40)

Lease liabilities

(1,744)

91

(157)

(44)

(1,854)

Lease liabilities included within liabilities held for sale

(13)

4

(4)

(13)

Financial liabilities

(7,841)

117

(260)

24

(67)

(8,027)

Net debt excluding fair value of swaps

(5,194)

155

(162)

24

(67)

(5,244)

Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings 2

37

98

(33)

102

Net debt 3

(5,157)

155

(64)

(9)

(67)

(5,142)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash at bank and in hand

940

(122)

(13)

(38)

767

Money market funds

669

(527)

142

Short-term deposits

1,843

221

(58)

2,006

Cash and cash equivalents (per balance sheet)

3,452

(428)

(71)

(38)

2,915

Cash and cash equivalents included within assets held for sale

51

(16)

(4)

38

69

Overdrafts

(7)

1

-

(6)

Cash and cash equivalents

(per cash flow statement)

3,496

(443)

(75)

-

2,978

Short-term investments

1

-

1

Other current borrowings

(1,006)

948

1

36

18

(3)

Non-current borrowings

(4,274)

(2,003)

45

108

88

(3)

(6,039)

Borrowings included within liabilities held for sale

(77)

(77)

Lease liabilities

(2,043)

145

31

15

(14)

(1,866)

Lease liabilities included within liabilities held for sale

2

(25)

(23)

Financial liabilities

(7,323)

(908)

77

144

19

(17)

(8,008)

Net debt excluding fair value of swaps

(3,827)

(1,350)

2

144

19

(17)

(5,029)

Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings 2

251

(6)

(41)

(147)

57

Net debt 3

(3,576)

(1,356)

(39)

(3)

19

(17)

(4,972)

1  Reclassifications during the period to 30 June 2021 included the transfer of ITP Aero to held for sale and fees of £29m paid in previous periods for the £2,000m loan (supported by an 80% guarantee from UK Export Finance) that have been reclassified to borrowings on the draw down of the facility during the prior period.    

2   Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings reflects the impact of derivatives on repayments of the principal amount of debt. Net debt therefore includes the fair value of derivatives included in fair value hedges (30 June 2022: £81m, 31 December 2021: £114m) and the element of fair value relating to exchange differences on the underlying principal of derivatives in cash flow hedges (30 June 2022: £21m, 31 December 2021: £(77)m). 

3   As at 30 June 2022, net debt excluding lease liabilities was £(3,275)m (31 December 2021: £(3,400)m).




 

Condensed consolidated statement of changes in equity

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022

 

 

Attributable to ordinary shareholders

 

 


Notes

Called-up

share capital

Share premium

Capital redemption reserve

Hedging reserves 1

Merger reserve

Translation reserve

Accumulated losses 2

Total

Non-controlling interests (NCI)

Total equity

 


 

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

 

At 31 December 2021 as previously reported

 

1,674

1,012

165

(45)

650

342

(8,460)

(4,662)

26

(4,636)

 

Adoption of amendment to IAS 37 (post-tax)

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

(729)

(729)

-

(729)

 

At 1 January 2022

 

1,674

1,012

165

(45)

650

342

(9,189)

(5,391)

26

(5,365)

 

Loss for the period


(1,554)

(1,554)

(1)

(1,555)

 

Foreign exchange translation differences on foreign operations


375

375

375

 

Cash flow hedge reserve reclassified to income statement on disposal of businesses

19

62

62

62

 

Movement on post-retirement schemes

16

329

329

329

 

Fair value movement on cash flow hedges


8

8

8

 

Reclassified to income statement from cash flow hedge reserve


(88)

(88)

(88)

 

Costs of hedging

12

4

4

4

 

Revaluation to fair value of other investments


(5)

(5)

(5)

 

OCI of joint ventures and associates


1

1

1

 

Related tax movements


9

(85)

(76)

(76)

 

Total comprehensive expense for the period


(5)

375

(1,314)

(944)

(1)

(945)

 

Redemption of C Shares 3


1

(1)

 

Share-based payments - direct to equity 4


24

24

24

 

Transactions with NCI 5


20

20

5

25

 

Other changes in equity in the period


1

43

44

5

49

 

At 30 June 2022


1,674

1,012

166

(50)

650

717

(10,460)

(6,291)

30

(6,261)

 

 












 

At 1 January 2021


1,674

1,012

162

(94)

650

524

(8,825)

(4,897)

22

(4,875)

 

Profit for the period


-

-

-

-

-

-

393

393

-

393

 

Foreign exchange translation differences on foreign operations


-

-

-

-

-

(174)

-

(174)

-

(174)

 

Movement on post-retirement schemes

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

(12)

(12)

-

(12)

 

Fair value movement on cash flow hedges


-

-

-

(41)

-

-

-

(41)

-

(41)

 

Reclassified to income statement from cash flow hedge reserve


-

-

-

38

-

-

-

38

-

38

 

OCI of joint ventures and associates


-

-

-

32

-

-

(4)

28

-

28

 

Related tax movements


-

-

-

2

-

(2)

16

16

-

16

 

Total comprehensive income for the period


-

-

-

31

-

(176)

393

248

-

248

 

Redemption of C Shares 3


-

-

2

-

-

-

(2)

-

-

-

 

Share-based payments - direct to equity 4


-

-

-

-

-

-

18

18

-

18

 

NCI on formation of subsidiary


-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

 

Related tax movements


-

-

-

-

-

-

17

17

-

17

 

Other changes in equity in the period


-

-

2

-

-

-

33

35

2

37

 

At 30 June 2021


1,674

1,012

164

(63)

650

348

(8,399)

(4,614)

24

(4,590)

 















1   The hedging reserves include the cash flow hedge reserve of £(54)m and the costs of hedging reserve of £4m. See note 12.

2   At 30 June 2022, 16,297,976 ordinary shares with a net book value of £39m (30 June 2021: 34,938,153 ordinary shares with a net book value of £78m) were held for the purpose of share-based payment plans and included in accumulated losses. During the period:

- 13,332,079 ordinary shares with a net book value of £27m (30 June 2021: 4,928,564 ordinary shares with a net book value of £11m) vested in share-based payment plans; and

- the Company acquired none (30 June 2021: none) of its ordinary shares via reinvestment of dividends received on its own shares and purchased none (30 June 2021: none) of its ordinary shares through purchases on the London Stock Exchange.

3  In Rolls-Royce Holdings plc's own financial statements, C Shares are issued from the merger reserve. This reserve was created by a scheme of arrangement in 2011. As this reserve is eliminated on consolidation in the consolidated financial statements, the C Shares are shown as being issued from the capital redemption reserve.

4   Share-based payments - direct to equity is the share-based payment charge for the period less the actual cost of vesting excluding those vesting from own shares and cash received on share-based schemes vesting.

5  Relates to NCI investment received in the period in respect of Rolls-Royce SMR Limited.



 

Notes to the interim financial statements

 

1     Basis of preparation and accounting policies

Reporting entity

Rolls-Royce Holdings plc (the 'Company') is a public company limited by shares incorporated under the Companies Act 2006 and domiciled in the UK. These condensed consolidated interim financial statements of the Company as at and for the six months to 30 June 2022 consist of the consolidation of the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries (together referred to as the 'Group') and include the Group's interest in jointly controlled and associated entities.

The consolidated financial statements of the Group as at and for the year ended 31 December 2021 (2021 Annual Report) are available upon request from the Company Secretary, Rolls-Royce Holdings plc, Kings Place, 90 York Way, London, N1 9FX.

The Board of Directors approved the condensed consolidated financial statements on 4 August 2022.

Statement of compliance

These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the basis of the policies set out in the 2021 Annual Report, except for changes below, and in accordance with UK adopted IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting and the Disclosure Guidance and Transparency Rules sourcebook of the UK's Financial Conduct Authority. They do not include all of the information required for full annual statements and should be read in conjunction with the Annual Report 2021.

The interim figures up to 30 June 2022 and 2021 are unaudited. The 2021 financial statements, which were prepared in accordance with UK adopted International Accounting Standards (IAS) and interpretations issued by the IFRS interpretations Committee applicable to companies reporting under UK adopted IAS, have been reported on by the Group's auditors and delivered to the registrar of companies. The report of the auditors was (i) unqualified, (ii) did not include a reference to any matters to which the auditors drew attention by way of emphasis without qualifying their report, and (iii) did not contain a statement under section 498(2) or (3) of the Companies Act 2006.

Changes to accounting policies

IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

The Group adopted the amendment to IAS 37 for Onerous Contracts - Cost of Fulfilling a Contract on 1 January 2022. The amendment clarifies the meaning of 'costs to fulfil a contract', explaining that the direct cost of fulfilling a contract comprises the incremental costs of fulfilling that contract (for example, direct labour and materials) and also an allocation of other costs that relate directly to fulfilling contracts. As a result of the amendment, the Group now includes additional allocated costs when determining whether a contract is onerous and in the quantification of the provision recognised in the event of a contract being onerous. These primarily relate to (a) fixed overheads in our operational areas that are incurred irrespective of manufacturing load, (b) fixed overheads of providing services including engine health monitoring and IT costs, and (c) depreciation of spare engines that the Group owns that are used to support the delivery of our contractual commitments to customers under LTSAs.

The Group has assessed the impact of this amendment on its contracts and has included additional allocated costs that have increased the total contract loss provision by £723m as at 1 January 2022 (see note 15). All material elements impact Civil Aerospace contracts. Of this increase, £38m relates to current provisions and £685m to non-current provisions. A tax credit has not been recognised on the increase in the provision relating to the UK (see Note 5 for details).

As required by the transition arrangement in relation to the amendment, comparative information has not been restated. The cumulative effect of initially applying the amendment has been recognised as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as at 1 January 2022.

Revision to IFRS not applicable in 2022

IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts

IFRS 17 is effective from 1 January 2023. The new standard established the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of insurance contracts within the scope of the Standard. The objective of IFRS 17 is to ensure that an entity provides relevant information that faithfully represents those contracts.

The Group has performed an assessment to establish where an impact is expected and, at this time, the Group believes that the impact is restricted to its captive insurance company. The process of assessing the financial impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements will continue during the second half of 2022.

Other

IBOR reform transition

A number of the Group's lease liabilities are based on a LIBOR index. These are predominantly referencing USD LIBOR, which is not expected to cease until 2023, hence the change in relation to these contracts has not impacted the 2022 financial statements.

Post balance sheet events

On 3 August 2022, the Group announced that the Spanish government has approved the sale of ITP Aero to a consortium of investors led by Bain Capital Private Equity. As a result, the completion of the transaction is expected in the coming weeks.

1     Basis of preparation and accounting policies continued

Going concern

In assessing the adoption of the going concern basis in the condensed consolidated interim financial statements, the Directors have considered the Group's forecast cash flows and available liquidity over an 18-month period to February 2024, taking into account certain risks and uncertainties, including having regard to the Group's net liabilities of £6,261m.

Liquidity and borrowings

At 30 June 2022, the Group had liquidity of £7.3bn including cash and cash equivalents of £2.8bn (including £37m of cash included in Assets Held for Sale) and undrawn facilities of £4.5bn.

The Group's committed borrowing facilities at 30 June 2022 and 28 February 2024 are set out below. None of the facilities are subject to any financial covenants or rating triggers which could accelerate repayment.

(£m)

30 June 2022

28 February 2024

Issued Bond Notes 1

3,995

3,995

Other loans

44

UKEF £2bn loan 2

2,000

2,000

UKEF £1bn loan (undrawn) 3

1,000

1,000

Revolving Credit Facility (undrawn) 4

2,500

2,500

Bank Loan Facility (undrawn) 5

1,000

Total committed borrowing facilities

10,539

9,495

1 The value of Issued Bond Notes reflects the impact of derivatives on repayments of the principal amount of debt. The bonds mature by May 2028.

2 The £2,000m UKEF loan matures in August 2025.

3 The £1,000m UKEF loan matures in March 2026 (currently undrawn).

4 The £2,500m Revolving Credit Facility matures in March 2025 (currently undrawn).

5 The £1,000m Bank Loan Facility matures in January 2024 (currently undrawn).

 

Taking into account the maturity of borrowing facilities, the Group has committed facilities of at least £9.5bn available throughout the period to 28 February 2024.

Forecasts

The Group has modelled two forecasts in its assessment of going concern which have been considered by the Directors. The base case forecast reflects a best estimation of future trading. A stressed downside forecast has also been modelled.

The Group's base case forecast reflects the relaxation of travel restrictions and an ongoing increase in customer confidence coming out of the COVID-19 pandemic. This drives a steady recovery of trading, especially in the civil aviation industry. The modelling assumes Civil large engine EFHs recover to pre-pandemic levels during 2024.

The proceeds from the planned disposal of ITP Aero have been included in the base case forecast, together with an assumption that these proceeds would be used to repay debt facilities, although there is no formal or contractual commitment to do so. 

The stressed downside forecast assumes no further recovery in Civil large engines, with EFHs modelled at average Q2 2022 levels over the 18-month going concern period. The stressed downside forecast also reflects additional near-term cost inflationary risk, load reduction through our factories, and possible supply chain challenges.

Conclusion

After reviewing the current liquidity position, the cash flow forecasts modelled under both the base case and stressed downside taking into account potential risks and uncertainties, the Directors consider that the Group has sufficient liquidity to continue in operational existence for a period of at least 18-months from the date of this report. The Directors are therefore satisfied that it is appropriate to adopt the going concern basis of accounting in preparing the financial statements.



 

1     Basis of preparation and accounting policies continued

Climate change

In preparing the condensed consolidated interim financial statements, the Directors have continued to consider the impact of climate change, particularly in the context of the disclosures made in the Strategic Report in the 2021 Annual Report and the stated net zero targets. These considerations did not have a material impact on the financial reporting judgements and estimates, consistent with the assessment that climate change is not expected to have a significant impact on the Group's going concern assessment to February 2024 nor the viability of the Group over the next five years. The following specific points were considered:

-    The Group continues to invest in new technologies including hybrid electric solutions in Power Systems, continued development of the more efficient UltraFan aero engine, testing of sustainable aviation fuels, small modular reactors (SMRs) and hybrid and fully electric propulsion; and

-    The Group continues to invest in onsite renewable energy generation solutions for the Group's facilities and investment is included in the five-year forecasts to enable the Group to meet it's 2030 target for zero greenhouse gas emissions (scope 1 and 2) from operations and facilities.

The Directors have considered the impact of climate change on a number of key estimates within the financial statements, including:

-    the estimates of future cash flows considered for trigger assessments or used in impairment assessments, where applicable, of the carrying value of non-current assets (such as programme intangible assets and goodwill);

-    the estimates of future profitability used in assessing the recoverability of deferred tax assets in the UK (see note 5); and

-    the long-term contract accounting assumptions, such as the level of EFHs assumed, which consider the future expectations of consumer and airline customer behaviour (see note 11).

As details of what specific future intervention measures will be taken by governments are not yet available, carbon pricing has been used to quantify the potential impact of future policy changes on the Group. The approach is consistent with that disclosed in note 1 in the 2021 Annual Report.

The climate related estimates and assumptions that have been considered to be key areas of judgement or sources of estimation uncertainty for the period ended 30 June 2022 are those relating to the recoverable amount of non-current assets including goodwill, capitalised development costs, recovery of deferred tax assets, recognition and measurement of provisions and recognition of revenue on long-term contracts. However, there have been no significant changes to assumptions, including the potential impact of carbon prices on the Group's cost base, since the year ended 31 December 2021.



 

1     Basis of preparation and accounting policies continued

Ukraine crisis

The Directors have considered the impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements from Russia's invasion of Ukraine. The following areas have been considered in preparing the financial statements:

-       the impact to operating profit as a result of ceasing operations and trading in Russia;

-       the resultant costs associated with the cessation of operations in Russia, including severance costs, asset impairments, and the write-down of inventory and financial assets; and 

-       the impairment of non-current assets where the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and resulting sanctions, meets the definition of a triggering event and impairment reviews have been performed where required.

The impact on the financial statements based on the above considerations was not material during the period.

Economic outlook

The Directors recognise the challenges in the current economic environment including escalating inflation, energy costs and challenges in the supply chain. The Group is actively managing the impacts associated with inflation and supply chain disruption through a sharper focus on pricing, productivity and costs. The Directors have considered these impacts in the estimates included within the cash flow forecasts used for the going concern assessment, recognition of deferred tax assets and long-term contract accounting assumptions. There has been no material impact on the financial statements as a result of these considerations.



 

1     Basis of preparation and accounting policies continued

Key areas of judgement and sources of estimation uncertainty

The determination of the Group's accounting policies requires judgement. The subsequent application of these policies requires estimates and the actual outcome may differ from that calculated. The key areas of judgement and sources of estimation uncertainty as at 31 December 2021, that were assessed as having a significant risk of causing material adjustments to the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, are set out in note 1 to the financial statements in the 2021 Annual Report and are summarised below. During the period, the Group has reassessed these and where necessary updated the key judgements and estimation uncertainties. Sensitivities for key sources of estimation uncertainty are disclosed where this is appropriate and practical.

 

Area

Key judgements

Key sources of estimation uncertainty

Sensitivities performed

Revenue recognition and contract assets and liabilities

Whether Civil Aerospace OE and aftermarket contracts should be combined.

How performance on
long-term aftermarket contracts should be measured.

Whether any costs should be treated as wastage.

Whether sales of spare engines to joint ventures are at fair value.

When revenue should be recognised in relation to spare engine sales.

 

Estimates of future revenue, including customer pricing, and costs of long-term contractual arrangements including the impact of climate change.

Estimates of the long-term foreign exchange rates.

Uncertainty remains in the short-term over the timing of recovery of demand, in particular in relation to the civil aviation industry, coming out of the COVID-19 pandemic. Estimates of future revenue within Civil Aerospace are based upon future EFH forecasts, influenced by assumptions over the time period and profile over which the civil aviation industry will recover.

Based upon the stage of completion of all large engine LTSA contracts within Civil Aerospace as at 30 June 2022, the following changes in estimate would result in catch-up adjustments being recognised in the period in which the estimates change (at underlying rates):

-  A change in forecast EFHs of 1% over the remaining term of the contracts would impact LTSA income and to a lesser extent costs, resulting in an impact of around £10m. This would be expected to be seen as a catch-up change in revenue or, to the extent it impacts onerous contracts, within cost of sales.

-  A 1% increase or decrease in our pricing to customers over the life of the contracts would lead to a revenue catch-up adjustment in the next 12 months of around £100m.

-  A 1% increase or decrease in shop visit costs over the life of the contracts would change the stage of completion and lead to a revenue catch-up adjustment in the next 12 months of around £25m.

Risk and revenue sharing arrangements (RRSAs)

Determination of the nature of entry fees received.



Taxation


Estimates are necessary to assess whether it is probable that sufficient suitable taxable profits will arise in the UK to utilise the deferred tax assets. This is largely driven by the Civil Aerospace business and the estimates described above.

A 5% change in margin or shop visits (which could be driven by fewer flying hours as a result of climate change) would result in an increase/decrease in the deferred tax asset in respect of UK losses of around £150m, which equates to around a £1.2bn increase/reduction in profit.

If only 90% of assumed future cost increases are passed on to customers, this would result in a decrease in the deferred tax asset of around £40m, and if the potential impact of carbon prices on the Group's cost base was to double, this would be around £110m.

Further detail is included in note 5.

Discontinued operations and assets held for sale

Whether the ITP Aero business and associated consolidation adjustments meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale and a discontinued operation.



Research and development

Determination of the point in time where costs incurred on an internal programme development meet the criteria for capitalisation or ceasing capitalisation.

Determination of the basis for amortising capitalised development costs.



Leases

Determination of the lease term.

Estimates of the payments required to meet residual value guarantees at the end of engine leases. Amounts due can vary depending on the level of utilisation of the engines, overhaul activity prior to the end of the contract, and decisions taken on whether ongoing access to the assets is required at the end of the lease term.

The lease liability at 30 June 2022 included £452m relating to the cost of meeting these residual value guarantees in the Civil Aerospace business. Up to £119m is payable in the next 12 months, £125m is due over the following four years and the remaining balance after five years.

Impairment of non-current assets

Determination of cash-generating units for assessing impairment of goodwill.

 



Provisions

Whether any costs relating to contracts with customers should be treated as wastage.

Estimates of the time to resolve the technical issues on the Trent 1000, including the development of the modified high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade.

Estimates of the future revenues and costs to fulfil onerous contracts.

Estimates of the long-term foreign exchange rates.

 

A 12-month delay in the availability of the modified HPT blade could lead to a
£40-70m increase in the Trent 1000 wastage costs provision.

An increase in Civil Aerospace large engines estimates of LTSA costs of 1% over the remaining term of the contracts could lead to a £90-110m increase in the provision for contract losses across all programmes.

Post-retirement benefits


The valuation of the Group's defined benefit pension schemes are based on assumptions determined with independent actuarial advice. The size of the net surplus is sensitive to the actuarial assumptions, which include the discount rate used to determine the present value of the future obligation, longevity, and the number of plan members who take the option to transfer their pension to a lump sum on retirement or who choose to take the Bridging Pension Option (BPO).

 

A reduction in the discount rate from 3.90% to 3.65% could lead to an increase in the defined benefit obligations of the RR UK Pension Fund of approximately £260m. This would be expected to be broadly offset by changes in the value of scheme assets, as the scheme's investment policies are designed to mitigate this risk.

An increase in the assumed rate of inflation of 0.25% (RPI of 3.5% and CPI of 2.95%) could lead to an increase in the defined benefit obligations of the RR UK Pension Fund of approximately £90m.

A one-year increase in life expectancy from 21.8 years (male aged 65) and from 23.2 years (male aged 45) would increase the defined benefit obligations of the RR UK Pension Fund by approximately £215m.

Where applicable, it is assumed that 50% (31 December 2021: 50%) of members of the RR UK Pension Fund will transfer out of the fund on retirement with a share of funds transfer. An increase of 5% in this assumption would increase the defined benefit obligation by £20m.

 



 

2     Analysis by business segment

The analysis by business segment is presented in accordance with IFRS 8 Operating Segments, on the basis of those segments whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the Board (who acts as the Chief Operating Decision Maker as defined by IFRS 8). The Group's four divisions are set out below. 

Civil Aerospace

-   development, manufacture, marketing and sales of commercial aero engines and aftermarket services

Defence

-   development, manufacture, marketing and sales of military aero engines, naval engines, submarine nuclear power plants and aftermarket services

Power Systems

-   development, manufacture, marketing and sales of integrated solutions for onsite power and propulsion

New Markets

-   development, manufacture and sales of small modular reactor (SMR) and new electrical power solutions

Other businesses include the trading results of the Bergen Engines AS business until the date of disposal on 31 December 2021 and the results of the Civil Nuclear Instrumentation & Control business until the date of disposal on 5 November 2021. The trading results of the UK Civil Nuclear business have also been included in Other businesses. The segmental analysis for the period to 30 June 2021 has been restated to reflect the 2022 definition of Other businesses.

ITP Aero has been classified as a disposal group held for sale and discontinued operation since 30 June 2021 and as such, the operating segment is no longer regularly reviewed by the Board as a basis for making decisions about the allocation of resources to the business or to assess its performance. In line with IFRS 8, ITP Aero is no longer considered to meet the definition of an operating segment and the segmental analysis for the period to 30 June 2021 has been restated to reflect the assessment of operating segments.

During the second half of the year to 31 December 2021, the Group assessed whether its New Markets activities met the criteria of an operating segment in accordance with IFRS 8. As the Group increases its investment in these important new technologies, the results of these activities have been combined and presented as an additional segment reflecting the differing characteristics and risk profile of these businesses in line with how performance is reviewed by the Board. These results were previously included within Other businesses and Corporate and Inter-segment. The segmental analysis for the period to 30 June 2021 has been restated to reflect the assessment of operating segments.

Underlying results 

The Group presents the financial performance of the businesses in accordance with IFRS 8 and consistently with the basis on which performance is communicated to the Board each month.

Underlying results are presented by recording all relevant revenue and cost of sales transactions at the average exchange rate achieved on effective settled derivative contracts in the period that the cash flow occurs. The impact of the revaluation of monetary assets and liabilities using the exchange rate that is expected to be achieved by the use of the effective hedge book is recorded within underlying cost of sales. Underlying financing excludes the impact of revaluing monetary assets and liabilities to period end exchange rates. Transactions between segments are presented on the same basis as underlying results and eliminated on consolidation. Unrealised fair value gains/(losses) on foreign exchange contracts, which are recognised as they arise in the statutory results, are excluded from underlying results. To the extent that the previously forecast transactions are no longer expected to occur, an appropriate portion of the unrealised fair value gain/(loss) on foreign exchange contracts is recorded immediately in the underlying results.   

Amounts receivable/(payable) on interest rate swaps which are not designated as hedge relationships for accounting purposes are reclassified from fair value movement on a statutory basis to interest receivable/(payable) on an underlying basis, as if they were in an effective hedge relationship.

In the period to 30 June 2022, the Group was a net seller (30 June 2021: net purchaser) of USD at an achieved exchange rate GBP:USD of 1.50 (30 June 2021: 1.39) based on the USD hedge book.

Estimates of future USD cash flows have been determined using the Group's base-case forecast. These USD cash flows have been used to establish the extent of future USD hedge requirements. In 2020, the Group took action to reduce the size of the USD hedge book by $11.8bn across 2020-2026, resulting in an underlying charge of £1.7bn being recognised within underlying finance costs and the associated cash settlement costs occurring over the period 2020-2026. The derivatives relating to this underlying charge have been subsequently excluded from the hedge book, and therefore are also excluded from the calculation of the average exchange rate achieved in the current and future periods. This charge was reversed in arriving at statutory performance on the basis that the cumulative fair value changes on these derivative contracts are recognised as they arise.

In the period to 30 June 2022, cash settlement costs of £265m were incurred (30 June 2021: £303m).

                                               


2     Analysis by business segment continued

Underlying performance excludes the following:

- the effect of acquisition accounting and business disposals;

- impairment of goodwill and other non-current and current assets where the reasons for the impairment are outside of normal operating activities;

- exceptional items; and

- certain other items which are market driven and outside of the control of management.

Acquisition accounting, business disposals and impairment

These are excluded from underlying results so that the current period and comparative results are directly comparable.

Exceptional items

Items are classified as exceptional where the Directors believe that presentation of the results in this way is useful in providing an understanding of the Group's financial performance. Exceptional items are identified by virtue of their size, nature or incidence.

In determining whether an event or transaction is exceptional, the Directors consider quantitative as well as qualitative factors such as the frequency or predictability of occurrence. Examples of exceptional items include one-time costs and charges in respect of aerospace programmes, costs of restructuring programmes and one-time past service charges and credits on post-retirement schemes.

Subsequent changes in exceptional items recognised in a prior period will also be recognised as exceptional. All other changes will be recognised within underlying performance.

Exceptional items are not allocated to segments and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.

Other items

The financing component of the defined benefit pension scheme cost is determined by market conditions and has therefore been included as a reconciling difference between underlying performance and statutory performance.

The tax effects of the adjustments above are excluded from the underlying tax charge. In addition, changes in tax rates or changes in the amount of recoverable deferred tax or advance corporation tax recognised are also excluded.

See page 32 for the reconciliation between underlying performance and statutory performance.

2     Analysis by business segment continued

The following analysis sets out the results of the Group's businesses on the basis described above and also includes a reconciliation of the underlying results to those reported in the condensed consolidated income statement.

-

Civil Aerospace

Defence

Power Systems

New Markets 1

Other businesses 1

Corporate and Inter-segment 1

Total underlying

 

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underlying revenue from sale of original equipment

660

697

849

-

(7)

(5)

2,194

Underlying revenue from aftermarket services

1,679

912

522

1

-

-

3,114

Total underlying revenue

2,339

1,609

1,371

1

(7)

(5)

5,308

Gross profit/(loss)

256

326

401

(2)

(29)

(10)

942

Commercial and administrative costs

(183)

(86)

(204)

(9)

-

(17)

(499)

Research and development costs

(202)

(53)

(79)

(37)

-

-

(371)

Share of results of joint ventures and associates

50

2

1

-

-

-

53

Underlying operating (loss)/profit

(79)

189

119

(48)

(29)

(27)

125









For the half-year ended 30 June 2021








Underlying revenue from sale of original equipment

722

719

718

-

80

-

2,239

Underlying revenue from aftermarket services

1,446

1,002

463

2

75

-

2,988

Total underlying revenue

2,168

1,721

1,181

2

155

-

5,227

Gross profit

380

395

301

-

18

3

1,097

Commercial and administrative costs

(145)

(79)

(190)

-

(11)

(19)

(444)

Research and development costs

(237)

(47)

(69)

(28)

(5)

-

(386)

Share of results of joint ventures and associates

41

-

(1)

-

-

-

40

Underlying operating profit/(loss)

39

269

41

(28)

2

(16)

307

1   The underlying results of Other businesses and Corporate and Inter-segment activities for 30 June 2021 have been restated to reclassify the results of the Group's SMR and electrical activities as New Markets.

 

  

2     Analysis by business segment continued

Reconciliation to statutory results

 

Total underlying

 

Underlying adjustments and adjustments to foreign exchange 

Group statutory results



 

£m

£m

£m


For the half-year ended 30 June 2022

 

 

 


Revenue from sale of original equipment

2,194

118

2,312


Revenue from aftermarket services

3,114

174

3,288


Total revenue

5,308

292

5,600


Gross profit

942

120

1,062


Commercial and administrative costs

(499)

(15)

(514)


Research and development costs

(371)

(2)

(373)


Share of results of joint ventures and associates

53

(5)

48


Operating profit

125

98

223


Gain arising on the disposal of businesses

-

77

77


Profit before financing and taxation

125

175

300


Net financing

(236)

(1,818)

(2,054)


Loss before taxation

(111)

(1,643)

(1,754)


Taxation

(77)

220

143


Loss for the period from continuing operations

(188)

(1,423)

(1,611)


Discontinued operations 1

59

(3)

56


Loss for the period

(129)

(1,426)

(1,555)







Attributable to:

 

 

 


Ordinary shareholders

(128)

(1,426)

(1,554)


Non-controlling interests

(1)

(1)



 

 

 


For the half-year ended 30 June 2021

 

 

 


Revenue from sale of original equipment

2,239

(4)

2,235


Revenue from aftermarket services

2,988

(64)

2,924


Total revenue

5,227

(68)

5,159


Gross profit/(loss)

1,097

(283)

814


Commercial and administrative costs

(444)

20

(424)


Research and development costs

(386)

(4)

(390)


Share of results of joint ventures and associates

40

(2)

38


Operating profit/(loss)

307

(269)

38


Loss arising on the disposal of businesses

-

(7)

(7)


Profit/(loss) before financing and taxation

307

(276)

31


Net financing

(174)

257

83


Profit/(loss) before taxation

133

(19)

114


Taxation

(29)

309

280


Profit for the period from continuing operations

104

290

394


Discontinued operations 1

43

(44)

(1)


Profit for the period

147

246

393







Attributable to:





Ordinary shareholders

147

246

393


Non-controlling interests

-

-

-


1   Discontinued operations relate to the results of ITP Aero and are presented net of intercompany trading eliminations and related consolidation adjustments.

 

 

2     Analysis by business segment continued

Disaggregation of revenue from contracts with customers

Analysis by type and basis of recognition

Civil Aerospace

Defence

Power Systems

New Markets 1

Other businesses 1

Corporate and Inter-segment 1

Total underlying

 

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

For the half-year ended 30 June 2022       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original equipment recognised at a point in time

660

304

838

-

-

(5)

1,797

Original equipment recognised over time

-

393

11

-

(7)

-

397

Aftermarket services recognised at a point in time

433

354

483

1

-

-

1,271

Aftermarket services recognised over time

1,215

558

39

-

-

-

1,812

Total underlying customer contract revenue

2,308

1,609

1,371

1

(7)

(5)

5,277

Other underlying revenue

31

-

-

-

-

-

31

Total underlying revenue

2,339

1,609

1,371

1

(7)

(5)

5,308

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the half-year ended 30 June 2021








Original equipment recognised at a point in time

721

301

707

-

80

-

1,809

Original equipment recognised over time

1

418

11

-

-

-

430

Aftermarket services recognised at a point in time

193

419

404

2

75

-

1,093

Aftermarket services recognised over time

1,197

583

59

-

-

-

1,839

Total underlying customer contract revenue

2,112

1,721

1,181

2

155

-

5,171

Other underlying revenue

56

-

-

-

-

-

56

Total underlying revenue

2,168

1,721

1,181

2

155

-

5,227











1   The underlying results of Other businesses and Corporate and Inter-segment activities for 30 June 2021 have been restated to reclassify the results of the Group's SMR and electrical activities as New Markets.

 

 

 

 

 


 

Total underlying 

Underlying adjustments and adjustments to foreign exchange

Group statutory results



 

£m

£m

£m


For the half-year ended 30 June 2022              





Original equipment recognised at a point in time

1,797

118

1,915


Original equipment recognised over time

397

-

397


Aftermarket services recognised at a point in time

1,271

72

1,343


Aftermarket services recognised over time

1,812

97

1,909


Total customer contract revenue

5,277

287

5,564


Other revenue

31

5

36


Total revenue

5,308

292

5,600


 

 

 

 


For the half-year ended 30 June 2021               





Original equipment recognised at a point in time

1,809

(8)

1,801


Original equipment recognised over time

430

1

431


Aftermarket services recognised at a point in time

1,093

1

1,094


Aftermarket services recognised over time

1,839

(57)

1,782


Total customer contract revenue

5,171

(63)

5,108


Other revenue

56

(5)

51


Total revenue

5,227

(68)

5,159


2     Analysis by business segment continued

Underlying profit adjustments

 

 

Half-year to 30 June 2022

 

Half-year to 30 June 2021


 

Revenue

£m

Profit before financing

£m

Net financing

£m

 

 

Taxation

£m


Revenue

£m

Profit before financing

£m

Net financing

£m

 

 

Taxation

£m

Total underlying performance

 

5,308

125

(236)

(77)


5,227

307

(174)

(29)

Impact of settled derivative contracts on trading transactions 1

A

292

124

(464)

7


(68)

(293)

164

10

Unrealised fair value changes on derivative contracts held for trading 2

A

-

(5)

(1,442)

230


-

(4)

66

(1)

Unrealised net gain on closing future

over-hedged position 3

A

-

-

-

-


-

-

(8)

-

Realised net gain on closing future over-hedged position 3

A

-

-

-

-


-

-

(7)

-

Unrealised fair value change to derivative contracts held for financing 4

A

-

-

88

(24)


-

-

38

(10)

Exceptional programme credits 5

B

-

22

(3)

-


-

-

-

-

Exceptional restructuring charge 6

B

-

(32)

-

4


-

(11)

-

(6)

Impairment reversals 7

C

-

11

-

-


-

1

-

-

Effect of acquisition accounting 8

C

-

(23)

-

5


-

(26)

-

7

Pension past-service credit 9

B

-

1

-

(1)


-

11

-

(4)

Other

D

-

-

3

(1)


-

53

4

(15)

Included in operating profit


292

98

(1,818)

220


(68)

(269)

257

(19)

Gains/(losses) arising on the acquisitions

and disposals of businesses 10

C

-

77

-

-


-

(7)

-

-

Impact of tax rate change 11


-

-

-

-


-

-

-

328

Total underlying adjustments

 

292

175

(1,818)

220


(68)

(276)

257

309

Statutory performance per condensed consolidated income statement

 

5,600

300

(2,054)

143


5,159

31

83

280

A - FX, B - Exceptional, C - M&A and impairment, D - Other

1   The impact of measuring revenues and costs and the impact of valuation of assets and liabilities using the period end exchange rate rather than the achieved rate or the exchange rate that is expected to be achieved by the use of the hedge book increased reported revenues by £292m (30 June 2021: reduced by £68m) and increased profit before financing and taxation by £124m (30 June 2021: reduced profit by £293m). Underlying financing excludes the impact of revaluing monetary assets and liabilities at the period end exchange rate.

2  The underlying results exclude the fair value changes on derivative contracts held for trading. These fair value changes are subsequently recognised in the underlying results when the contracts are settled.

3 In 2020, the Group took action to reduce the size of the USD hedge book by $11.8bn across 2020-2026, resulting in an underlying charge of £1.7bn at 31 December 2020. In 2021, this estimate was updated to reflect the actual cash cost and resulted in a £15m gain to underlying finance costs in the period to 30 June 2021.

4 Includes the losses on hedge ineffectiveness in the period of £9m (30 June 2021: losses of £2m) and net fair value gains of £97m (30 June 2021: gains of £40m) on any interest rate swaps not designated into hedging relationships for accounting purposes.

5 During the period to 30 June 2022, contract loss provisions previously recognised in respect of the Trent 1000 technical issues which were identified in 2019 have been reversed due to a reduction in the estimated cost of settling the obligation. See note 15 for further details.

6 During the period to 30 June 2022, the Group recorded an exceptional restructuring charge of £32m (30 June 2021: charge of £11m) which includes £8m released from the provision and £40m which has been charged directly to the income statement in relation to a number of ongoing initiatives. Further details are provided in note 15.

7   The Group has assessed the carrying value of its assets. Further details are provided in notes 8 and 9.

8  The effect of acquisition accounting includes the amortisation of intangible assets arising on previous acquisitions.

9  The past-service credit of £1m includes a credit of £6m as a result of a constructive obligation recognised for the offering of the Bridging Pension Option (BPO) to other deferred members in the RR UK Pension Fund and a settlement loss of £5m on the Rolls-Royce North America retirement scheme.

10             Gains/(losses) arising on the acquisitions and disposals of businesses are set out in note 19.

11             The 2021 tax credit relates to the increase in the UK tax rate from 19% to 25%.

2     Analysis by business segment continued

Balance sheet analysis

 

 

 

Civil Aerospace

£m

Defence

£m

Power Systems

£m

New Markets

£m

Total reportable segments

£m

At 30 June 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Segment assets

 

 

16,769

3,196

3,915

105

23,985

Interests in joint ventures and associates

 

 

421

10

35

-

466

Segment liabilities

 

 

(24,183)

(2,922)

(1,620)

(47)

(28,772)

Net (liabilities)/assets

 

 

(6,993)

284

2,330

58

(4,321)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 31 December 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Segment assets



15,846

2,766

3,531

90

22,233

Interests in joint ventures and associates



378

9

16

-

403

Segment liabilities



(20,745)

(2,635)

(1,503)

(33)

(24,916)

Net (liabilities)/assets



(4,521)

140

2,044

57

(2,280)

Reconciliation to the balance sheet

 

 

 

 

 

30 June 2022

31 December 2021

 

 

 

 

 

£m

£m

Reportable segment assets excluding held for sale

 

 

 


23,985

22,233

Other businesses

 

 

 


7

14

Corporate and inter-segment

 

 

 


(2,586)

(2,255)

Interests in joint ventures and associates

 

 

 


466

403

Assets held for sale 1

 

 

 


2,101

2,028

Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments

 

 

 


2,748

2,629

Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings

 

 

 


205

135

Deferred and income tax assets

 

 

 


2,530

2,339

Post-retirement scheme surpluses

 

 

 


1,157

1,148

Total assets

 

 

 


30,613

28,674

Reportable segment liabilities excluding held for sale

 

 

 


(28,772)

(24,916)

Other businesses

 

 

 


(31)

(11)

Corporate and inter-segment

 

 

 


2,475

2,139

Liabilities associated with assets held for sale 1

 

 

 


(781)

(723)

Borrowings and lease liabilities

 

 

 


(7,976)

(7,776)

Fair value of swaps hedging fixed rate borrowings

 

 

 


(103)

(98)

Deferred and income tax liabilities

 

 

 


(577)

(552)

Post-retirement scheme deficits

 

 

 


(1,109)

(1,373)

Total liabilities

 

 

 


(36,874)

(33,310)

Net liabilities

 

 

 

 

(6,261)

(4,636)

1  At 30 June 2022, assets and liabilities relating to ITP Aero are classified as held for sale. At 31 December 2021, assets and liabilities relating to ITP Aero, the investment in Airtanker Holdings and other non-current assets related to the Group's site rationalisation activities were classified as held for sale. For further details see note 19.

 

3     Research and development


Half-year to 30 June 2022

Half-year to 30 June 2021


£m

£m

Gross research and development costs

(599)

(549)

Contributions and fees 1

218

153

Expenditure in the period

(381)

(396)

Capitalised as intangible assets

48

41

Amortisation and impairment of capitalised costs 2

(40)

(35)

Net cost recognised in the income statement

(373)

(390)

Underlying adjustments relating to the effects of acquisition accounting, impairment and foreign exchange 3, 4

2

4

Net underlying cost recognised in the income statement

(371)

(386)

1   Includes government funding.

2   See note 7 for analysis of amortisation and impairment. During the prior period, amortisation of £5m has been incurred within the disposal group recognised as a discontinued operation.

3 During the period, no (30 June 2021: no) impairment of research and development was recorded.

4  Underlying adjustments relating to the effects of acquisition accounting, impairment and foreign exchange have been re-presented to align with the changes to segmental analysis. For further detail, see note 2.



 

4     Net financing


Half-year to 30 June 2022

Half-year to 30 June 2021


Per consolidated income statement

Underlying financing 1

Per consolidated income statement

Underlying financing 1


£m

£m

£m

£m

 





Interest receivable

9

9

3

3

Net fair value gains on foreign currency contracts

25

-

Net fair value gains on non-hedge accounted interest rate swaps 2

97

40

-

Net fair value gains on commodity contracts

95

41

-

Financing on post-retirement scheme surpluses

14

7

-

Net foreign exchange gains

164

-

Realised net gains on closing over-hedged position 3

-

7

Unrealised net gains on closing over-hedged position 3

-

8

Financing income

215

9

280

18

 

 

 



Interest payable

(171)

(171)

(106)

(113)

Net fair value losses on foreign currency contracts

(1,537)

-

-

Finance charge relating to financial RRSAs

(6)

(6)

-

-

Financing on post-retirement scheme deficits

(12)

(10)

-

Net foreign exchange losses

(464)

-

-

Fees on undrawn facilities

(31)

(31)

(35)

(35)

Other financing charges

(48)

(37)

(46)

(44)

Financing costs

(2,269)

(245)

(197)

(192)

 

 

 



Net financing (costs)/income

(2,054)

(236)

83

(174)


 

 



Analysed as:

 

 

 


Net interest payable

(162)

(162)

(103)

(110)

Net fair value (losses)/gains on derivative contracts

(1,345)

106

15

Net post-retirement scheme financing

2

(3)

-

Net foreign exchange (losses)/gains

(464)

164

-

Net other financing

(85)

(74)

(81)

(79)

Net financing (costs)/income

(2,054)

(236)

83

(174)

1               See note 2 for definition of underlying results. Underlying financing has been re-presented to align with the changes to segmental analysis.

2   The condensed consolidated income statement shows the net fair value gains/(losses) on any interest rate swaps not designated into hedging relationships for accounting purposes. Underlying financing reclassifies the fair value movements on these interest rate swaps to net interest payable.

3 In 2020, the Group took action to reduce the size of the USD hedge book by $11.8bn across 2020-2026, resulting in an underlying charge of £1,689m at 31 December 2020. In 2021, this estimate was updated to reflect the actual cash settlement cost of £1,674m and resulted in a £15m gain to underlying finance costs in the year to 31 December 2021. The cash settlement costs of £1,674m covers the period 2020-2026, £186m was incurred in 2020, £452m was incurred in the year to 31 December 2021 and £265m was incurred in the period to 30 June 2022. The Group estimates that future cash outflows of £61m will be incurred in the remainder of 2022, £389m to be incurred in 2023 and £321m spread over 2024 to 2026.



 

5     Taxation

The income tax expense has been calculated by applying the annual effective tax rate for each jurisdiction to the half-year profits of each jurisdiction.

The tax credit for the half-year is £143m on a statutory loss before taxation of £1,754m (30 June 2021: tax credit of £280m on a statutory profit before taxation of £114m), giving a statutory rate of 8.1% (30 June 2021: (245.9%)). The key driver of the tax credit in 2022 is the increase in the UK deferred tax asset relating to the unrealised foreign exchange losses on derivative contracts. This is reduced by tax charges on profits, mainly in the US and Germany. The key driver of the tax credit in 2021 was the impact of the increase in the UK tax rate from 19% to 25% on deferred tax assets.

Tax reconciliation - continuing operations:


Half-year to 30 June 2022

Half-year to 30 June 2021


£m

Tax rate

£m

Tax rate


 

 



(Loss)/profit before taxation

(1,754)

 

114



 

 



Nominal tax (credit)/charge at UK corporation rate of 19%

(333)

19.0%

22

19.0%

Tax losses in period not recognised in deferred tax 1

161

(9.2%)

(7)

(6.1%)

Increase in deferred taxes resulting from change in UK tax rate

(328)

(287.7%)

Other

29

(1.7%)

33

28.9%

Statutory tax credit and rate

(143)

8.1%

(280)

(245.9%)


 

 



Analysis of statutory tax credit:

 

 



Underlying items

77

 

29


Non-underlying items (see note 2)

(220)

 

(309)



(143)

 

(280)


1   Includes UK losses not recognised and movement on unrecognised deferred tax assets relating to foreign exchange and commodity financial assets and liabilities.

 

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which to recover the asset. Where necessary, this is based on the Directors' assumptions relating to the amounts and timing of future taxable profits. The Board continually reassesses the appropriateness of recovering deferred tax assets, which includes a consideration of the level of future profits and the time period over which they are recovered.

Sensitivity analyses are also performed as part of the assessment. At 30 June 2022, the following sensitivities have been modelled to demonstrate the impact of changes in assumptions on the recoverability of deferred tax assets:

-       A 5% change in margin in the main Civil Aerospace large engine programmes;

-       A 5% change in the number of shop visits driven by flying hours; and

-       Assumed future cost increases from climate change expected to pass through to customers at 100% are restricted to 90% pass through.

A 5% change in margin or shop visits (which could be driven by fewer flying hours as a result of climate change) would result in an increase/decrease in the deferred tax asset in respect of UK losses of around £150m, which equates to around a £1.2bn increase/reduction in profit.

If only 90% of assumed future cost increases from climate change are passed on to customers, this would result in a decrease in the deferred tax asset of around £40m, and if the potential impact of carbon prices on the Group's cost base was to double, this would be around £110m. The assumptions for carbon prices are consistent to those at 31 December 2021.

As a consequence of the impact of COVID-19 on existing Civil Aerospace large engine programmes, taking into account the sensitivity analyses performed, and in light of the inherent uncertainty in estimating such long-term forecasts, the Group has not recognised a deferred tax asset in respect of 2022 UK losses. This includes losses arising from the IAS 37 amendment.

The reassessment of probable future taxable profits at the time the IAS 37 amendment came into effect was not materially different to the assessment performed at 31 December 2021. This is due to the timing of the utilisation and reflects that UK tax laws restrict the offset of carried forward losses to 50% of future profits. Therefore no deferred tax asset has been recognised on the transitional adjustment relating to the UK. The full details of the IAS 37 amendment are set out in note 1.

Deferred tax assets arising on additional unrealised losses on derivative contracts that remain hedged have also been assessed, resulting in a net increase in the deferred tax asset of £213m.

Both of these assessments are in line with the approach set out in note 5 of the 2021 Annual Report, and also take into account a 25% probability of there being a severe but plausible downside scenario.

The Group is reviewing the impact of the OECD Pillar Two (global minimum tax) rules and the associated UK draft legislation, which was released on 20 July 2022. These rules are expected to apply from 2024.

6          Earnings per ordinary share

Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the (loss)/profit attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the period, excluding ordinary shares held under trust, which have been treated as if they had been cancelled.

As there is a loss during the period, the effect of potentially dilutive ordinary shares is anti-dilutive.


Half-year to 30 June 2022


Half-year to 30 June 2021


Basic

Potentially dilutive share options

Diluted


Basic

Potentially dilutive share options

Diluted

(Loss)/profit attributable to ordinary shareholders (£m):

 

 

 





Continuing operations

(1,610)

 

(1,610)


394


394

Discontinued operations

56

 

56


(1)


(1)


(1,554)

 

(1,554)


393


393

Weighted average number of ordinary shares (millions)

8,345

8,345


8,331

18

8,349

EPS (pence):

 

 

 





Continuing operations

(19.29)

(19.29)


4.73

(0.01)

4.72

Discontinued operations

0.67

0.67


(0.01)

(0.01)


(18.62)

(18.62)


4.72

(0.01)

4.71

The reconciliation between underlying EPS and basic EPS is as follows:


Half-year to 30 June 2022


Half-year to 30 June 2021


Pence

£m


Pence

£m

Underlying EPS / Underlying (loss)/profit from continuing operations attributable to ordinary shareholders

(2.24)

(187)


1.25

104

Total underlying adjustments to (loss)/profit before tax (note 2)

(19.69)

(1,643)


(0.23)

(19)

Related tax effects

2.64

220


3.71

309

EPS / (loss)/profit from continuing operations attributable to ordinary shareholders

(19.29)

(1,610)


4.73

394

Diluted underlying EPS from continuing operations attributable to ordinary shareholders

(2.24)

 


1.25


 



 

7     Intangible assets


Goodwill

£m

Certification costs

£m

Development expenditure

£m

Customer relationships

£m

Software 1

£m

Other

£m

Total

£m

Cost:








At 1 January 2022

1,060

933

3,393

475

978

833

7,672

Additions

-

1

48

-

30

9

88

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(22)

(1)

(23)

Exchange differences

48

1

35

25

8

15

132

At 30 June 2022

1,108

935

3,476

500

994

856

7,869


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated amortisation and impairment:

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 1 January 2022

34

425

1,760

342

650

420

3,631

Charge for the period 2

-

11

40

18

42

16

127

Impairment

-

-

-

-

9

2

11

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(17)

(1)

(18)

Exchange differences

3

-

24 

22 

6

64

At 30 June 2022

37

436

1,824

382

690

446

3,815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net book value:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30 June 2022

1,071

499

1,652

118

304

410

4,054

1 January 2022

1,026

508

1,633

133

328

413

4,041

1   Includes £98m (31 December 2021: £115m) of software under course of construction which is not amortised.     

2   Charged to cost of sales and commercial and administrative costs except development costs, which are charged to research and development costs.

Intangible assets (including programme intangible assets) have been reviewed for impairment in accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets. Assessments have considered potential triggers of impairment such as external factors including climate change, significant changes with an adverse effect on a programme and by analysing latest management forecasts against those prepared in 2021 to identify any deterioration in performance.

The Group believes there are significant business growth opportunities to come from Rolls-Royce playing a leading role in the transition to net zero, whilst at the same time climate change poses potentially significant risks. The assumptions used by the Directors are based on past experience and external sources of information. The main areas that have been considered are demand for engines and their useful lives, utilisation of the products whilst in service, and the impact of market and regulatory change. The investment required to ensure our new products will be compatible with net zero operation by 2030, and to achieve net zero scope 1 and 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is reflected in the forecasts used.

Where a trigger event has been identified, an impairment test has been carried out. Where an impairment was required the test was performed on the following basis:

-    The carrying values have been assessed by reference to value in use. These have been estimated using cash flows from the most recent forecasts prepared by the Directors, which are consistent with past experience and external sources of information on market conditions over the lives of the respective programmes; and

-    The key assumptions underpinning cash flow projections are based on estimates of product performance related estimates, future market share and pricing and cost for uncontracted business. Climate risks are considered when making these estimates consistent with the assumptions above. The uncertainty over the recovery from COVID-19 has been modelled by including downside forecasts at an appropriate weighting taking into account the business segment being considered.

There have been no individually material impairment charges or reversals recognised during the period.

8     Property, plant and equipment


Land and buildings

£m

Plant and equipment

£m

Aircraft and engines

£m

In course of construction

£m

Total

£m

Cost:






At 1 January 2022

1,865

4,986

1,046

300 

8,197 

Additions

10

42

11

37 

100 

Disposals/write-offs

(12)

(80)

(22)

(1)

(115)

Reclassifications 1

4

54

-

(58)

Exchange differences

52

132

10

14 

208 

At 30 June 2022

1,919

5,134

1,045

292 

8,390 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation and impairment:

 

 

 

 

 

At 1 January 2022

614

3,244

414

4,280 

Charge for the period 2

33

152

27

212 

Impairment 3

(1)

(8)

-

(9)

Disposals/write-offs

(7)

(77)

(15)

(99)

Exchange differences

18

84

5

107 

At 30 June 2022

657

3,395

431

8

4,491 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net book value at:

 

 

 

 

 

30 June 2022

1,262

1,739

614

284

3,899

1 January 2022

1,251

1,742

632

292 

3,917

1   Includes reclassifications of assets under construction to the relevant classification in property, plant and equipment, right-of-use assets or intangible assets when available for use.

2   Depreciation is charged to cost of sales and commercial and administrative costs or included in the cost of inventory as appropriate.

3   The carrying values of property, plant and equipment have been assessed during the period in line with IAS 36. Material items of plant and equipment and aircraft and engines are assessed for impairment together with other assets used in individual programmes - see assumptions in note 7. Land and buildings are generally used across multiple programmes and are considered based on future expectations of the use of the site, which includes any implications from climate related risks as explained in note 7. As a result of this assessment, there are no individually material impairment charges or reversals in the period. The reversal in the period relates to an element of the non-underlying impairments recorded in 2020 in Civil Aerospace for site rationalisation where there has been a subsequent change in strategy to continue production on those sites.


9     Right-of-use assets


Land and buildings

£m

Plant and equipment

£m

Aircraft and engines

£m

Total

£m

Cost:





At 1 January 2022

456

143

1,785 

2,384 

Additions/modification of leases

5

20

20

45

Disposals

(25)

(4)

(19)

(48)

Exchange differences

25

1

2

28

At 30 June 2022

461

160

1,788

2,409 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation and impairment:

 

 

 

 

At 1 January 2022

186

66

929

1,181

Charge for the period

21

16

94

131

Impairment 1

(3)

(1)

-

(4)

Disposals

(7)

(4)

(19)

(30)

Exchange differences

14

(1)

2

15

At 30 June 2022

211

76

1,006

1,293

 

 

 

 

 

Net book value at:

 

 

 

 

30 June 2022

250

84

782

1,116

1 January 2022

270

77

856

1,203

1   The carrying values of right-of-use assets have been assessed during the period in line with IAS 36. Material items of plant and equipment and aircraft and engines are assessed for impairment together with other assets used in individual programmes - see assumptions in note 7. Land and buildings are generally used across multiple programmes and are considered based on future expectations of the use of the site (which includes any implications from climate related risks as explained in note 7). As a result of this assessment, there are no individually material impairment charges or reversals in the period. The reversal in the period relates to an element of the non-underlying impairments recorded in 2020 in Civil Aerospace for site rationalisation where there has been a subsequent change in strategy to continue production on those sites.

 

10    Trade receivables and other assets


Current

 

Non-current

 

Total

 


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

 

30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

Trade receivables 1

2,306

2,141


42

52


2,348

2,193

Receivables due on RRSAs

698

702


238

67


936

769

Amounts owed by joint ventures and associates

679

598


6

1


685

599

Costs to obtain contracts with customers

3

13


47

41


50

54

Other taxation and social security receivable

191

197


9

8


200

205

Other receivables 2

690

593


49

20


739

613

Prepayments

619

572


416

378


1,035

950


5,186

4,816


807

567


5,993

5,383











1  Non-current trade receivables relate to amounts not expected to be received in the next 12 months from customers on payment plans.

2  Other receivables include unbilled recoveries relating to overhaul activity.

The Group has adopted the simplified approach to provide for expected credit losses, measuring the loss allowance at a probability weighted amount incorporated by using credit ratings which are publicly available, or through internal risk assessments derived using the customer's latest available financial information.

The expected credit losses for trade receivables and other assets has increased by £30m to £289m (31 December 2021: £259m). This movement is mainly driven by the Civil Aerospace business of £33m, of which £37m relates to specific customers and £(4)m relates to updates to the recoverability of other receivables.

The movements of the Group's expected credit losses provision are as follows:


30 June 2022

31 December 2021


£m

£m

At 1 January

(259)

(252)

Increases in loss allowance recognised in the income statement during the period

(74)

(124)

Loss allowance utilised

22

46

Releases of loss allowance previously provided

46

46

Transferred to assets held for sale

2

Exchange differences

(24)

23

At 30 June/31 December

(289)

(259)

 



 

11    Contract assets and liabilities


Current

 

Non-current 1

 

Total 2


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

 

30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

Contract assets









Contract assets with customers

591

586


670

641


1,261

1,227

Participation fee contract assets

27

27


210

219


237

246


618

613


880

860


1,498

1,473

1  Contract assets and contract liabilities have been presented on the face of the balance sheet in line with the operating cycle of the business. Contract liabilities are further split according to when the related performance obligation is expected to be satisfied and therefore when revenue is estimated to be recognised in the income statement. Further disclosure of contract assets is provided in the table above, which shows within current the element of consideration that will become unconditional in the next year.

2  Contract assets are classified as non-financial instruments.

Contract assets with customers includes £928m (31 December 2021: £915m) of Civil Aerospace LTSA assets, with most of the remaining balance relating to Defence. The main driver of the increase in the Group balance is revenue relating to performance obligations satisfied in previous years being adjusted by £32m in Civil Aerospace. No impairment losses in relation to these contract assets (31 December 2021: none) have arisen during the period to 30 June 2022.

Participation fee contract assets have reduced by £9m (31 December 2021: reduced by £188m) due to amortisation exceeding additions by £12m. The movement in 2021 was primarily due to ITP Aero being reclassified as a disposal group held for sale.

 


Current

 

Non-current

 

Total


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

 

30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

Contract liabilities

4,214

3,599


6,930

6,710


11,144

10,309

Contract liabilities have increased by £835m. The movement in the Group balance is as a result of increases in Civil Aerospace of £667m and Defence of £168m. 

The Civil Aerospace movement includes an increase in relation to LTSA liabilities of £535m to £7,664m
(31 December 2021: £7,129m). LTSA revenue billed has been ahead of revenue recognised in the period and together with foreign exchange movements has increased the LTSA liabilities by £744m, offset by £209m of revenue recognised relating to performance obligations satisfied in previous years, which were principally driven by price escalation in business aviation and the impact of specific customer negotiations.

The movement in Defence is due to the receipt of deposits ahead of performance obligations being satisfied.

12    Financial assets and liabilities

Carrying value of other financial assets and liabilities


Derivatives

 

 

 

 

 


Foreign exchange contracts

£m

Commodity contracts

£m

Interest rate contracts 1

£m

Total

derivatives

£m

Financial RRSAs

£m

Other

£m

C Shares

£m

Total

£m

At 30 June 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-current assets

34

32

349

415

-

18

-

433

Current assets

67

58

-

125

-

11

-

136

Assets

101

90

349

540

-

29

-

569

Current liabilities

(934)

-

-

(934)

(11)

(23)

(24)

(992)

Non-current liabilities

(3,318)

(3)

(95)

(3,416)

(7)

(55)

-

(3,478)

Liabilities

(4,252)

(3)

(95)

(4,350)

(18)

(78)

(24)

(4,470)


(4,151)

87

254

(3,810)

(18)

(49)

(24)

(3,901)










At 31 December 2021









Non-current assets

159

11

176

346

-

15

-

361

Current assets

12

21

-

33

-

13

-

46

Assets

171

32

176

379

-

28

-

407

Current liabilities

(629)

-

-

(629)

(7)

(28)

(25)

(689)

Non-current liabilities

(2,581)

-

(82)

(2,663)

(5)

(47)

-

(2,715)

Liabilities

(3,210)

-

(82)

(3,292)

(12)

(75)

(25)

(3,404)


(3,039)

32

94

(2,913)

(12)

(47)

(25)

(2,997)












1   Includes the foreign exchange impact of cross-currency interest rate swaps.

Derivative financial instruments

Movements in fair value of derivative financial assets and liabilities were as follows:

 

Half-year to 30 June 2022

 

Year-ended 31 December 2021

 

Foreign exchange instruments

 

Commodity instruments

 

Interest rate instruments - hedge accounted 1

 

Interest rate instruments - non-hedge accounted

 

Total

 

Total

 

£m


£m

 

£m

 

£m

 

£m

 

£m

At 1 January

(3,039)

 

32

 

57


37

 

(2,913)

 

(2,706)

Movements in fair value hedges

-

 

-

 

(23)


-

 

(23)

 

(143)

Movements in cash flow hedges

(42)

 

-

 

91


-

 

49

 

(11)

Movements in other derivative contracts 2

(1,537)

 

95

 

-


97

 

(1,345)

 

(538)

Contracts settled

467

 

(40)

 

(7)


2

 

422

 

512

Reclassification to held for sale

-

 

-

 

-


-

 

-

 

(27)

At period/year end

(4,151)

 

87

 

118


136

 

(3,810)

 

(2,913)
















1  Includes the foreign exchange impact of cross-currency interest rate swaps.

2  Included in net financing.

 

Financial risk and revenue sharing arrangements (RRSAs) and other financial assets and liabilities

 


Financial RRSAs

 

Other liabilities

 

Other assets


Half-year to 30 June 2022

£m

Year-ended 31 December 2021

£m

 

Half-year to 30 June 2022

£m

Year-ended 31 December 2021

£m


Half-year to 30 June 2022

£m

Year-ended 31 December 2021

£m

At 1 January

(12)

(81)

 

(75)

(73)


15

15

Exchange adjustments included in OCI

(2)

4

 

(2)

4


3

-

Additions

-

-

 

(2)

(9)


-

Financing charge 1

(6)

-

 

-

(1)


-

Excluded from underlying profit:

 


 

 



 


Changes in forecast payments 1

-

(7)

 

-

-


-

Cash paid

2

3

 

1

3


-

Other

-

-

 

-

1


-

Reclassification to held for sale

-

69

 

-

-


-

At period/year end

(18)

(12)

 

(78)

(75)


18

15

1   Included in net financing.

12    Financial assets and liabilities continued

Fair values of financial instruments equate to book values with the following exceptions:


Half-year to 30 June 2022

 

Year-ended 31 December 2021


Book value

£m

Fair value

£m

 

Book value

£m

Fair value

£m

Borrowings - Level 1

(4,113)

(3,689)

 

(4,038)

(4,106)

Borrowings - Level 2

(2,009)

(2,019)

 

(1,994)

(2,122)

Financial RRSAs - Level 3

(18)

(18)

 

(12)

(13)

Fair values

The fair value of a financial instrument is the price at which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arms-length transaction. There have been no transfers during the period from or to Level 3 valuation. Fair values have been determined with reference to available market information at the balance sheet date, using the methodologies described below.

-  Non-current investments primarily comprise unconsolidated companies where fair value approximates to the book value. Listed investments are valued using Level 1 methodology.

-  Money market funds, included within cash and cash equivalents, are valued using Level 1 methodology. Fair values are assumed to approximately equal cost either due to the short-term maturity of the instruments or because the interest rate of the investments is reset after periods not exceeding six months.

-  The fair values of held to collect trade receivables and similar items, trade payables and other similar items, other
non-derivative financial assets and liabilities, short-term investments and cash and cash equivalents are assumed to approximate to cost either due to the short-term maturity of the instruments or because the interest rate of the investments is reset after periods not exceeding six months.

-  Fair values of derivative financial assets and liabilities and trade receivable held to collect or sell (30 June 2022: £7m;
31 December 2021: £17m) are estimated by discounting expected future contractual cash flows using prevailing interest rate curves or cost of borrowing, as appropriate. Amounts denominated in foreign currencies are valued at the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. These financial instruments are included on the balance sheet at fair value, derived from observable market prices (Level 2 as defined by IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement).

-  Fair values of deal contingent derivative financial assets and liabilities are estimated by discounting expected future contractual cash flows using prevailing interest rate curves. Amounts denominated in foreign currencies are valued at the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. The value of the contingent element has been considered and is dependent upon the occurrence and time of the closing. These financial instruments are included on the balance sheet at fair value, derived from observable market prices or latest forecast (Level 2/3 as defined by IFRS 13). 

-  Borrowings are carried at amortised cost. Amounts denominated in foreign currencies are valued at the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. The fair value of borrowings is estimated using quoted prices (Level 1 as defined by IFRS 13) or by discounting contractual future cash flows (Level 2 as defined by IFRS 13).

-  The fair values of RRSAs and other liabilities are estimated by discounting expected future cash flows. The contractual cash flows are based on future trading activity, which is estimated based on latest forecasts (Level 3 as defined by IFRS 13).

-  Other assets are included on the balance sheet at fair value, derived from observable market prices or latest forecast (Level 2/3 as defined by IFRS 13). At 30 June 2022, Level 3 assets totalled £18m (31 December 2021: £15m).

-  The fair value of lease liabilities are estimated by discounting future contractual cash flows using either the interest rate implicit in the lease or the Group's incremental cost of borrowing (Level 2 as defined by IFRS 13).     



 

12    Financial assets and liabilities continued

Effect of hedging instruments on the financial position and performance

During the period to 30 June 2022, the Group has entered into transaction dependent foreign currency forward contracts (deal contingent forwards) with a nominal amount of €1,500m to manage the foreign exchange risk in Euro proceeds expected from the disposal of ITP Aero (hedged item). These contracts have been designated as the hedging instrument in cash flow hedges with hedge relationships of 1:1. At inception and on a continuing basis, the existence of an economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument is verified. Both the spot component and the contingent element were designated as the hedging instrument. There was ineffectiveness of £4m recognised in net financing in the period. The forward element and basis were excluded from the hedging instrument designation and are separately accounted for in the equity reserve for cost of hedging.



Hedged item

Hedging instrument 1

Hedging reserves

 

 


Nominal

FV movement in the period

Nominal

Carrying amount

(liability)

FV movement in the period

Hedge ineffectiveness in the period

Weighted average FX rate

Amount recognised in cash flow hedge reserve

Amount recognised in cost of hedging reserve

 

 


£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

 

£m

£m

 

At 30 June 2022










Euro


1,252

38

(1,252)

(42)

(42)

(4)

1.20

(42)

4

 

1   Hedging instruments are included in other financial assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.

13    Borrowings and lease liabilities


Current

 

Non-current

 

Total


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

 

30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

Unsecured









Overdrafts

2

7


-

-


2

7

Bank loans

1

2


1,996

1,975


1,997

1,977

Loan notes 1

-

-


4,113

4,038


4,113

4,038

Other loans

-

-


10

10


10

10

Total unsecured

3

9


6,119

6,023


6,122

6,032


 



 



 


Lease liabilities

318

270


1,536

1,474


1,854

1,744


 



 



 


Total borrowings and lease liabilities

321

279


7,655

7,497

 

7,976

7,776

1   All outstanding items described above as notes are listed on the London Stock Exchange.

Under the terms of certain recent loan facilities, the Company is restricted from declaring, making or paying distributions to shareholders on or prior to 31 December 2022 and from declaring, making or paying distributions to shareholders from
1 January 2023 unless certain conditions are satisfied. The restrictions on distributions do not prevent shareholders from redeeming C Shares issued in January 2020 or earlier.



 

14         Trade payables and other liabilities


Current

 

Non-current

 

Total


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m


30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

 

30 June 2022

£m

31 December 2021

£m

Trade payables

1,669

1,272


-

-


1,669

1,272

Payables due on RRSAs

1,025

739


-

-


1,025

739

Amounts owed to joint ventures and associates

612

486


-

-


612

486

Customer concession credits

854

1,106


726

399


1,580

1,505

Warranty credits

325

201


168

161


493

362

Accruals

1,412

1,361


199

192


1,611

1,553

Deferred receipts from RRSA workshare partners

15

23


490

484


505

507

Government grants

18

28


44

39


62

67

Other taxation and social security

41

40


-

-


41

40

Other payables 1

710

760


261

300


971


6,681

6,016


1,888

1,575


8,569

7,591

1   Other payables includes parts purchase obligations, payroll liabilities, HM UK Government levies and payables associated with business disposals.

The Group's payment terms with suppliers vary on the products and services being sourced, the competitive global markets the Group operates in and other commercial aspects of suppliers' relationships. Industry average payment terms vary between 90-120 days. The Group offers reduced payment terms for smaller suppliers, so that they are paid in 30 days. In line with aerospace industry practice, the Group offers a supply chain financing (SCF) programme in partnership with banks to enable suppliers, including joint ventures, who are on standard 75-day payment terms to receive their payments sooner. The SCF programme is available to suppliers at their discretion and does not change rights and obligations with suppliers nor the timing of payment to suppliers. At 30 June 2022, suppliers had drawn £524m under the SCF scheme
(31 December 2021: £540m).

15    Provisions for liabilities and charges


At 31 December 2021 as previously reported

On adoption of amendment to IAS 37

At

1 January 2022

Charged to income statement 1

Reversed

Utilised

Exchange differences

At 30 June 2022


£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

£m

Trent 1000 wastage costs

157

-

157

64

(36)

-

185

Contract losses

845

723

1,568

181

(229)

(37)

3

1,486

Restructuring

21

-

21

-

(8)

(6)

1

8

Warranty and guarantees

305

-

305

33

(5)

(45)

12

300

Customer financing

17

-

17

-

(8)

-

9

Insurance

52

-

52

16

(5)

(6)

-

57

Tax related interest and penalties

14

-

14

-

(1)

1

14

Employer liability claims

47

-

47

-

-

47

Other

124

-

124

22

(3)

(4)

3

142

 

1,582

723

2,305

316

(250)

(143)

20

2,248

Current liabilities

475

 

513





567

Non-current liabilities

1,107

 

1,792





1,681

The charge to the income statement includes £15m (30 June 2021: £16m) as a result of the unwinding of the discounting of provisions previously recognised.



 

15    Provisions for liabilities and charges continued

Trent 1000 wastage costs

In November 2019, the Group announced the outcome of testing and a thorough technical and financial review of the Trent 1000 TEN programme, following technical issues which were identified in 2019, resulting in a revised timeline and a more conservative estimate of durability for the improved HP turbine blade for the TEN variant. During the period, the Group has utilised £36m of the Trent 1000 wastage costs provision. This represents customer disruption costs settled in cash and credit notes, and remediation shop visit costs. During the period, additional Trent 1000 costs of £64m relating to wastage have been recognised reflecting delays in certification which have led to revised cost and timing estimates. The value of the remaining provision reflects the single most likely outcome and is expected to be utilised over the period 2022 to 2024.

Contract losses                                                                                                                                                 

Provisions for contract losses are recorded when the direct costs to fulfil a contract are assessed as being greater than the expected revenue. As a result of the amendment to IAS 37 for Onerous Contracts, from 1 January 2022 provisions for contract losses have been measured on a fully costed basis resulting in an increase of the total contract loss provision by £723m as at 1 January 2022 (see note 1 for details). During the period, additional contract losses for the Group of £181m have been recognised as a result of changes in future cost estimates, primarily in relation to LTSA shop visits. Contract losses of £229m previously recognised have been reversed following improvements to cost estimates across various large engine programmes as a result of commercial and operational improvements and updates to the discount rate. The Group continues to monitor the contract loss provision for changes in the market and revises the provision as required. The value of the remaining contract loss provisions reflect, in each case, the single most likely outcome. The provisions are expected to be utilised over the term of the customer contracts, typically within 8 to 16 years.

Warranty and guarantees

Provisions for warranties and guarantees primarily relate to products sold and are calculated based on an assessment of the remediation costs related to future claims based on past experience. The provision generally covers a period of up to three years.            

Customer financing                                                                                                                                                          

Customer financing provisions have been made to cover guarantees provided for asset value and/or financing where it is probable that a payment will be made. In addition to the provisions recognised, the Group has contingent liabilities for customer financing arrangements where the payment is not probable as described below.

In connection with the sale of its products the Group will, on some occasions, provide financing support for its customers, generally in respect of civil aircraft. The Group's commitments relating to these financing arrangements are spread over many years, relate to a number of customers and a broad product portfolio and are generally secured on the asset subject to the financing. These include commitments of $1.4bn (31 December 2021: $1.7bn) (on a discounted basis) to provide facilities to enable customers to purchase aircraft (of which approximately $360m could be called during 2022). These facilities may only be used if the customer is unable to obtain financing elsewhere and are priced at a premium to the market rate. Significant events impacting the international aircraft financing market, the failure by customers to meet their obligations under such financing agreements, or inadequate provisions for customer financing liabilities may adversely affect the Group's financial position.

Gross commitments of £33m (31 December 2021: £32m) are offset by £11m (31 December 2021: £10m) for the value of security and £1m (31 December 2021: £2m) of guarantees. These are reported on a discounted basis at the Group's borrowing rate to better reflect the time span over which these exposures could arise. These amounts do not represent values that are expected to crystallise. The values of aircraft providing security are based on advice from a specialist aircraft appraiser.       

Other

At 30 June 2022, other provisions includes £30m for costs related to the termination of a contract under which the Group now has an obligation to enter an onerous lease, as well as others (predominantly supplier claims), where the related legal proceedings are ongoing and utilisation will depend upon their resolution. The value of the provision reflects the single most likely outcome in each case.