Company Announcements

Final Results - Part 8 of 8

Source: RNS
RNS Number : 2277R
abrdn PLC
28 February 2023

abrdn plc

Full Year Results 2022

Part 8 of 8


10. Glossary

Adjusted net financing costs and investment return

Adjusted net financing costs and investment return is a component of adjusted profit and relates to the return from the net assets of the shareholder business, net of costs of financing. This includes the net assets in defined benefit staff pension plans and net assets relating to the financing of subordinated liabilities.

Adjusted operating expenses

Adjusted operating expenses is a component of adjusted operating profit and relates to the day-to-day expenses of managing our business.

Adjusted operating profit

Adjusted operating profit before tax is the Group's key APM. Adjusted operating profit includes the results of the Group's three growth vectors: Investments, Adviser and Personal, along with Corporate/strategic.

It excludes the Group's adjusted net financing costs and investment return, and discontinued operations.

Adjusted operating profit also excludes the impact of the following items:

-     Restructuring costs and corporate transaction expenses. Restructuring includes the impact of major regulatory change.

-     Amortisation and impairment of intangible assets acquired in business combinations and through the purchase of customer contracts.

-     Profit or loss arising on the disposal of a subsidiary, joint venture or equity accounted associate.

-     Change in fair value of/dividends from significant listed investments.

-     Share of profit or loss from associates and joint ventures.

-     Impairment loss/reversal of impairment loss recognised on investments in associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method.

-     Fair value movements in contingent consideration.

-     Items which are one-off and, due to their size or nature, are not indicative of the long-term operating performance of the Group.

Adjusted profit before tax

In addition to the results included in adjusted operating profit above, adjusted profit before tax includes adjusted net financing costs and investment return.

Assets under management and administration (AUMA)

AUMA is a measure of the total assets we manage, administer or advise on behalf of our clients. It includes assets under management (AUM), assets under administration (AUA) and assets under advice (AUAdv). AUMA does not include assets for associates and joint ventures.

AUM is a measure of the total assets that we manage on behalf of individual and institutional clients. AUM also includes assets managed for corporate purposes.

AUA is a measure of the total assets we administer for clients through our Platforms.

AUAdv is a measure of the total assets we advise our clients on, for which there is an ongoing charge.


The Board of Directors of the Company.

Carbon intensity

Weighted-Average Carbon Intensity (WACI) is calculated by summing the product of each company's weight in the portfolio or loan book with that company's carbon-to-revenue intensity. Carbon-to-revenue intensity is calculated by dividing the sum of all apportioned emissions, with the sum of all apportioned revenues across an investment portfolio or loan book. This metric gives an indication of how efficient companies in a portfolio or loan book are at generating revenues per tonne of carbon emitted.

Carbon neutral

Being carbon neutral means that carbon released through our operational emissions is balanced by an equivalent amount being removed through carbon offsetting.

Carbon offsetting

Carbon offsetting is an internationally recognised way to take responsibility for carbon emissions. The aim of carbon offsetting is that for every one tonne of offsets purchased there will be one less tonne of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than there would otherwise have been. To offset emissions we purchase the equivalent volume of carbon credits (independently verified emissions reductions) to compensate for our operational carbon emissions. We have been reviewing our use of offsetting, and although we continue to use offsets as a means of addressing our residual emissions, our prime objective is always to reduce our environmental impact before compensating for it.

Chief Operating Decision Maker

The executive leadership team.


abrdn plc.

Cost/income ratio

This is an efficiency measure that is calculated as adjusted operating expenses divided by net operating revenue.


CRD IV is the European regulatory capital regime (comprising the Capital Requirements Directive and Capital Requirements Regulation) that applied to investment firms up to and including 31 December 2021. The new IFPR regime came into force on 1 January 2022.


A director of the Company.

Earnings per share (EPS)

EPS is a commonly used financial metric which can be used to measure the profitability and strength of a company over time. EPS is calculated by dividing profit by the number of ordinary shares. Basic EPS uses the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS adjusts the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding to assume conversion of all dilutive potential ordinary shares, such as share options awarded to employees.

Effective tax rate

Tax expense/(credit) attributable to equity holders' profit divided by profit before tax attributable to equity holders' profits expressed as a percentage.

Executive leadership team (ELT)

Our ELT leads across our businesses and supporting functions globally and is responsible for executing and monitoring progress on the delivery of our business plans. The ELT also ensures we meet our obligations to our clients, people, shareholders, regulators and partners.

Fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

FVTPL is an IFRS measurement basis permitted for assets and liabilities which meet certain criteria. Gains or losses on assets or liabilities measured at FVTPL are recognised directly in the income statement.


Financial Conduct Authority of the United Kingdom.

Greenhouse gases

Greenhouse gases are the atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming (i.e. the greenhouse effect) and climate change. These gases, both natural and anthropogenic in origin include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Other greenhouse gases which are less prevalent but with a greater Global Warming Potential include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

Group or abrdn

Relates to the Company and its subsidiaries.

Growth vectors

We provide services across three growth vectors:

-     Investments: Asset management investment solutions for institutional, wholesale and insurance clients.

-     Adviser: Our UK adviser platform business.

-     Personal: Comprises of Personal Wealth which includes our financial planning business and our direct-to-consumer services, and interactive investor following the completion of the acquisition in May 2022.

Internal Capital Adequacy and Risk Assessment (ICARA)

The ICARA is the means by which the Group assesses the levels of capital and liquidity that adequately support all of the relevant current and future risks in its business.

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

International Financial Reporting Standards are accounting standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

Investment Firms Prudential Regime (IFPR)

The Investment Firms Prudential Regime is the FCA's new prudential regime for MiFID investment firms. The regime came into force on 1 January 2022.

Investment performance

Investment performance has been aggregated using a money weighted average of our assets under management which are outperforming their respective benchmark. The calculation of investment performance has been revised to use a closing AUM weighting basis. In prior periods investment performance was weighted based on AUM at the start of the performance period. 2021 comparatives have been restated. We believe that this approach provides a more representative view of current investment performance, given the significant changes to business mix over the investment time frame, and provides investment performance data which is more comparable with peers. Calculations for investment performance are made gross of fees with the exception of those for which the stated comparator is net of fees. Benchmarks differ by fund and are defined in the relevant investment management agreement or prospectus, as appropriate. The investment performance calculation covers all funds that aim to outperform a benchmark, with certain assets excluded where this measure of performance is not appropriate or expected, such as private markets and execution only mandates, as well as replication tracker funds which aim to perform in line with a given index.

LBG tranche withdrawals

On 24 July 2019, the Group announced that it had agreed a final settlement in relation to the arbitration proceedings between the parties concerning LBG's attempt to terminate investment management arrangements under which assets were managed by members of the Group for LBG entities. In its decision of March 2019, the arbitral tribunal found that LBG was not entitled to terminate these investment management contracts. The Group had continued to manage approximately £104bn (as at 30 June 2019) of assets under management (AUM) for LBG entities during the period of the dispute. Approximately two thirds of the total AUM (the transferring AUM) will be transferred to third party managers appointed by LBG through a series of planned tranches from 24 July 2019. During this period, the Group will continue to be remunerated for its services in relation to the transferring AUM. The final tranche withdrawal was completed in H1 2022.

Market Disclosure

This IFPR disclosure complements the Own funds requirement and Own funds threshold requirement with the aim of improving market discipline by requiring companies to publish certain details of their risks, capital and risk management. Relevant disclosures are made in the abrdn plc consolidated annual report and accounts and in the accounts of the Group's individual IFPR-regulated entities, all of which can be found on the abrdn plc Group's website.

Net flows

Net flows represent gross inflows less gross outflows or redemptions. Gross inflows are new funds from clients. Redemptions is the money withdrawn by clients during the period. Cash dividends which are retained on the ii platform are included in net flows for the ii business only. Cash dividends are included in market movements for other parts of the group including the Investments and Adviser platform businesses. We consider that this different approach is appropriate for the ii business as cash dividend payments which are retained result in additional income for ii, but are largely revenue neutral for the rest of the group.

Net operating revenue

The Group's measure of segmental revenue has been renamed from fee based revenue to net operating revenue. There are no differences between Net operating revenue as presented in the IFRS consolidated income statement and the analysis of Group adjusted profit by segment for the year ended 31 December 2022. This measure of segmental revenue excludes £28m of net operating revenue as presented in the IFRS consolidated income statement for the year ended 31 December 2021 which was classified as adjusting items. The adjusting items primarily related to the net release of deferred income of £25m (refer Note 32).

Net operating revenue is a component of adjusted operating profit and includes revenue we generate from asset management charges (AMCs), platform charges, treasury income and other transactional charges. AMCs are earned on products such as mutual funds, and are calculated as a percentage fee based on the assets held. Investment risk on these products rests principally with the client, with our major indirect exposure to rising or falling markets coming from higher or lower AMCs. Treasury income is the interest earned on cash balances less the interest paid to customers. Net operating revenue is shown net of fees, costs of sale, commissions and similar charges. Costs of sale include revenue from fund platforms which is passed to the product provider.

Net operating revenue yield (bps)

The net operating revenue yield (previously named fee revenue yield) is a measure that illustrates the average margin being earned on the assets that we manage, administer or advise our clients on excluding interactive investor. It is calculated as annualised net operating revenue (excluding performance fees, interactive investor and revenue for which there are no attributable assets) divided by monthly average fee based assets. interactive investor is excluded from the calculation of Personal and total net operating revenue yield as fees charged for this business are primarily from subscriptions and trading transactions.

Net zero

It is generally accepted that net zero is the target of completely negating the amount of greenhouse gases produced by human activity, to be achieved by reducing emissions to the lowest possible amount and offsetting (see carbon offsetting) only the remainder as a last resort.

Net Zero Directed Investing

Net Zero Directed Investing means moving towards the goal of net zero in the real world - not just in specific investment portfolios. At abrdn we seek to achieve this goal through a holistic set of actions, including rigorous research into net-zero trajectories, developing net-zero-directed investment solutions and active ownership to influence corporates and policy makers.

Operational emissions

Operational emissions are the greenhouse gas emissions related to the operations of our business. They are categorised into three groups or 'scopes' in alignment with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. Scope 1 covers direct emissions from owned or controlled sources. Scope 2 covers indirect emissions from the generation of purchased electricity, steam, heating and cooling consumed by the reporting company. Scope 3 includes all other indirect emissions that occur in a company's value chain. At abrdn we report on Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, and a selection of Scope 3 categories, where deemed material, which includes our working from home emissions.

Own Funds Requirement

Under IFPR, the Own Funds Requirement is the higher of the permanent minimum capital requirement, the fixed overhead requirements, and the K-factor requirement. The K-factor requirement is the sum of: Risk-to-Client, Risk-to-Market, and Risk-to-Firm K-factors. 

Own Funds Threshold Requirement

Under IFPR, the Own Funds Threshold Requirement is the higher of Own funds required on an ongoing basis and Own funds required on a wind-down basis. The firm identifies and measures risks of harm and determines the degree to which systems and controls alone mitigate those risks of harm (or risks of disorderly wind-down). Any additional own funds needed, over and above the Own funds requirement, to cover this identified residual risk is held under the Own Funds Threshold Requirement.

Paris alignment

'Paris alignment' refers to the alignment of public and private financial flows with the objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. Article 2.1c of the Paris Agreement defines this alignment as making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. Alignment in this way will help to scale up the financial flows needed to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change.

Phoenix or Phoenix Group

Phoenix Group Holdings plc or Phoenix Group Holdings plc and its subsidiaries.

Significant listed investments

Relates to our investments in HDFC Asset Management, HDFC Life and Phoenix. Fair value movements and dividend income relating to these investments are treated as adjusting items for the purpose of determining the Group's adjusted profit.

Subordinated liabilities

Subordinated liabilities are debts of a company which, in the event of liquidation, rank below its other debts but above share capital. The 5.25% Fixed Rate Reset Perpetual Subordinated Contingent Convertible Notes issued by the Company in December 2021 are classified as other equity as no contractual obligation to deliver cash exists.

11. Shareholder information

Registered office

1 George Street


Company registration number: SC286832

For shareholder services call: 0371 384 2464*

* Calls are monitored/recorded to meet regulatory obligations and for training and quality purposes. Call charges will vary.

Secretary: Julian Baddeley

Registrar: Equiniti

Auditors: KPMG LLP

Solicitors: Slaughter and May

Brokers: JP Morgan Cazenove, Goldman Sachs

Shareholder services

We offer a wide range of shareholder services. For more information, please:

-     Contact our registrar, Equiniti, who manage this service for us. Their details can be found on the inside back cover.

-     Visit our share portal at

Sign up for Ecommunications

Signing up means:

-     You'll receive an email when documents like the annual report and accounts, Half year results and AGM guide are available on our website.

-     Voting instructions for the Annual General Meeting will be sent to you electronically.

Set up a share portal account

Having a share portal account means you can:

-     Manage your account at a time that suits you.

-     Download your documents when you need them. 

To find out how to sign up, visit

Preventing unsolicited mail

By law, the Company has to make certain details from its share register publicly available. As a result it is possible that some registered shareholders could receive unsolicited mail, emails or phone calls. You could also be targeted by fraudulent 'investment specialists', clone firms or scammers posing as government bodies e.g. HMRC, FCA. Frauds are becoming much more sophisticated and may use real company branding, the names of real employees or email addresses that appear to come from the company. If you get a social or email message and you're unsure if it is from us, you can send it to and we'll let you know.

You can also check the FCA warning list and warning from overseas regulators, however, please note that this is not an exhaustive list and do not assume that a firm is legitimate just because it does not appear on the list as fraudsters frequently change their name and it may not have been reported yet.

You can find more information about share scams at the Financial Conduct Authority website

If you are a certificated shareholder, your name and address may appear on a public register. Using a nominee company to hold your shares can help protect your privacy. You can transfer your shares into the Company-sponsored nominee - the abrdn Share Account - by contacting Equiniti, or you could get in touch with your broker to find out about their nominee services.

If you want to limit the amount of unsolicited mail you receive generally, please visit

Financial calendar

Full year results 2022

28 February

Ex-dividend date for 2022 final dividend

30 March

Record date for 2022 final dividend

31 March

Last date for DRIP elections for 2022 final dividend

26 April

Annual General Meeting - Edinburgh

10 May

Dividend payment date for 2022 final dividend

16 May

Half year results 2023

8 August

Ex-dividend date for 2023 interim dividend

17 August

Record date for 2023 interim dividend

18 August

Last date for DRIP elections for 2023
interim dividend

6 September

Dividend payment date for 2023 interim dividend

26 September

Analysis of registered shareholdings at 31 December 2022

Range of shares

Number of holders

% of total holders

Number of shares

% of total shares































#   These figures include the Company-sponsored nominee - the abrdn Share Account - which had 914,644 participants holding 648,559,822 shares.

12. Forward-looking statements

This document may contain certain 'forward-looking statements' with respect to the financial condition, performance, results, strategies, targets, objectives, plans, goals and expectations of the Company and its affiliates. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts.

Forward-looking statements are prospective in nature and are not based on historical or current facts, but rather on current expectations, assumptions and projections of management of the abrdn Group about future events, and are therefore subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from the future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

For example but without limitation, statements containing words such as 'may', 'will', 'should', 'could', 'continues', 'aims', 'estimates', 'projects', 'believes', 'intends', 'expects', 'hopes', 'plans', 'pursues', 'ensure', 'seeks', 'targets' and 'anticipates', and words of similar meaning (including the negative of these terms), may be forward-looking. These statements are based on assumptions and assessments made by the Company in light of its experience and its perception of historical trends, current conditions, future developments and other factors it believes appropriate.

By their nature, all forward-looking statements involve risk and uncertainty because they are based on information available at the time they are made, including current expectations and assumptions, and relate to future events and/or depend on circumstances which may be or are beyond the Group's control, including among other things: UK domestic and global political, economic and business conditions, (such as the UK's exit from the EU and the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine); market related risks such as fluctuations in interest rates and exchange rates, and the performance of financial markets generally; the impact of inflation and deflation; the impact of competition; the timing, impact and other uncertainties associated with future acquisitions, disposals or combinations undertaken by the Company or its affiliates and/or within relevant industries; experience in particular with regard to mortality and morbidity trends, lapse rates and policy renewal rates; the value of and earnings from the Group's strategic investments and ongoing commercial relationships; default by counterparties; information technology or data security breaches (including the Group being subject to cyberattacks); operational information technology risks, including the Group's operations being highly dependent on its information technology systems (both internal and outsourced); natural or man-made catastrophic events; the impact of pandemics, such as the COVID-19 (coronavirus) outbreak; climate change and a transition to a low-carbon economy (including the risk that the Group may not achieve its targets); exposure to third party risks including as a result of outsourcing; the failure to attract or retain necessary key personnel; the policies and actions of regulatory authorities and the impact of changes in capital, solvency or accounting standards, and tax and other legislation and regulations (including changes to the regulatory capital requirements that the Group is subject to in the jurisdictions in which the Company and its affiliates operate. As a result, the Group's actual future financial condition, performance and results may differ materially from the plans, goals, objectives and expectations set forth in the forward-looking statements.

Neither the Company, nor any of its associates, directors, officers or advisers, provides any representation, assurance or guarantee that the occurrence of the events expressed or implied in any forward-looking statements in this document will actually occur. Persons receiving this document should not place reliance on forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements contained in this document are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as at the date of the particular statement. Neither the Company nor its affiliates assume any obligation to update or correct any of the forward-looking statements contained in this document or any other forward-looking statements it or they may make (whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise), except as required by law. Past performance is not an indicator of future results and the results of the Company and its affiliates in this document may not be indicative of, and are not an estimate, forecast or projection of, the Company's or its affiliates' future results.


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